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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 OCTOBER 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 OCTOBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Famous work related to dances”

1) Natya Shastra talks at length of “natya”, which provides the basic source of information on the intricacies of Indian theatre. Discuss and also explain  the rasa theory in Natyashastra? (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the kind of information we get from Natyashastra about the intricacies of Indian theatre, how Natyashastra sets the rule of theatre and the various aspects of theatre covered in Natyashastra. Thereafter, we need to explain the rasa theory in Natyashastra.

Directive word

Discuss – Here, your discussion should focus on bringing the different elements of theatre talked about in Natyashastra and explain the rasa theory.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Briefly explain about Natyashastra. The Natyashashtra of Bharat is an ancient treatise on theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BC to 200 AD. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and other aspects of theatre. It is called the foundation of the fine arts in India. It was based upon Gandhravaveda. Mention that The Natya Shastra talks at length of “natya”, a derivation from the word “nat”, meaning to dance or to act.

Body

  • Explain how Natyashastra gives us information on intricacies of Indian theatre – The mythic origin of dramatic art, the construction of playhouses, the detailed preliminaries, the treatment of “rasa” and “bhava”, the different types of abhinaya-aharya (costume and make-up), vachika (verbal), angika (gestures and dance movements) and sattvika (indicating mental reactions) — dances, footsteps, songs, modes of address, classification of the story (itivritta) which form the body of the theatre. Explain that the treatise is so detailed that even the role of audiences is explained in Natyashastra.
  • Explain the rasa theory in Natyashastra – The fountainhead of the rasa theory is Bharata’s Natyashastra. Rasa or essence refers to the dominant emotional theme of a performing art which is invoked in the audience. The Rasa Theory says that Rasa arises from a (proper) combination of the vibhavas (the stimulants), the anubhavas (the physical consequents) and the vyabhicharibhavas (the transient emotional states)”. The Natyashashtra describes the eight Rasas which are to be mentioned. Explain that Abhinavgupta, who is known for have written the best commentary on Natyashashtra called Abhinavabhāratī, had proposed a ninth Rasa called Śāntam which together with eight rasas in Natyashastra forms the Navras.

Conclusion – Mention that Indian drama from the earliest times was shaped by Bharata’s Natya Shastra. Not only were its rules strictly followed by eminent classical dramatists whose plays were performed in temples and palaces, but were also obeyed to the core in the common man’s theatre. The work remained a source book for scholars and writers of drama and inspired several other treatises.

Background :-

  • Naṭya Sastrais notable as an ancient encyclopedic treatise on the arts one which has influenced dance, music and literary traditions in India.
  • It is the principal work of dramatic theory, encompassing dance and music, in classical India. It is attributed to the Bharatamuni and is believed to have been written during the period between 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E. 
  • The Natya Shastrais the outcome of several centuries of theatrical practice by hereditary actors, who passed their tradition orally from generation to generation. It is in the form of a loose dialog between Bharata and a number of munis who approach him, asking about naṭyaveda.
  • The treatise is composed in prose and verse, but verse predominates. Gandharva music, the techniques of playing musical instruments and the rules for talas are explained.

Natyashastra provides the basic source of information on the intricacies of Indian theatre :-

  • Root of the Sanskritword Natya is Nat which means act, represent. Natyashastra is a detailed treatise and handbook on dramatic art that deals with all aspects of classical Sanskrit 
  • Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the diverse arts that are embodied in the classical Indian concept of the drama, including dance, music, poetics, and general aesthetics.
  • Its primary importance lies in its justification of Indian drama as a vehicle of religious enlightenment.
  • The Natya Shastra posits that drama originated because of the conflicts that arose in society when the world declined from the Golden Age of harmony, and therefore a drama always represents a conflict and its resolution.
  • Bharata’s theory of drama refers to bhavas,the imitations of emotions that the actors perform, and the rasas (emotional responses) that they inspire in the audience.
  • The eight basic bhavas (emotions) are: love, humor, energy, anger, fear, grief, disgust and astonishment. In observing and imagining these emotions, the audience experiences eight principal responses, or rasas:love, pity, anger, disgust, heroism, awe, terror and comedy.
  • The text contains a set of precepts on the writing and performance of dance, music and theater, and while it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has influenced Indian music, dance, sculpture, painting and literature as well. Thus, the Natya Shastrais considered the foundation of the fine arts in India.

Rasa theory in natyashastra :-

  • Natyashastra is notable for its aesthetic Rasa”theory, which asserts that entertainment is a desired effect of performance arts but not the primary goal, and that the primary goal is to transport the individual in the audience into another parallel reality, full of wonder, where he experiences the essence of his own consciousness, and reflects on spiritual and moral questions.
  • Theory of Rasa-Bhava establishes a relationship between the performer and the spectator. The model spectator is a Sahrdaya, someone ‘who empathizes with the author.’ Since the success of a performance is measured by whether or not the audience has a specific experience (rasa), the spectator becomes a vital participant in the play. 
  • Rasa is the emotional response the bhavas inspire in the spectator (the Rasika or Sahrudaya). Rasa is thus an aesthetically transformed emotional state experienced by the spectator. Rasa is accompanied by feelings of pleasure and enjoyment. Such emotions tunes perception of the spectators, they create atmosphere of empathy, make people more sensitive, help to open mind and heart to understand the idea and message of the play. 
  • The Rasa Theory says that Rasa arises from a (proper) combination of the vibhavas(the stimulants), the anubhavas(the physical consequents) and the vyabhicharibhavas (the transient emotional states).
  • The Natyashashtradescribes the eight Rasas as follows:
    • Sṛingaram: Love, Attractiveness
    • Hasyam: Laughter, Mirth, Comedy
    • Raudram: Fury, Wrath
    • Karuṇyam : Compassion, Tragedy
    • Bibhatsam : Disgust, Aversion
    • Bhayanakam : Horror, Terror
    • Viram : Heroic mood
    • Adbhutam : Wonder, Amazement
  • Apart from the above, Abhinavgupta, who is known for have written the best commentary on Natyashashtra called Abhinavabharati,had proposed a ninth Rasa called Santam which denotes the peace or tranquillity. This along with the eight rasas of Bharat are called Navaras. A few more Rasas such as Vatsalya Rasa and Bhakti Rasas were added in the later times.

Conclusion:-

  • Natya Shastra remained an important text in the fine arts for many centuries, and defined much of the terminology and structure of Indian classical music and Indian classical dance. The analysis of body forms and movements also influenced sculpture and the other arts in subsequent centuries. The structures of music outlined in the ‘‘Natya Shastra’’ retain their influence even today, as seen in the seminal work Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi.

Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Classical dance forms and their salient features”

2) Discuss the various sources which provide information about Bharatnatyam? Explain the role Rukmini Devi Arundale played in modern rebirth of Bharatnatyam?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to list down the various sources such as literary, paintings etc from which we get information about Bharatnatyam. Next, we need to explain how Rukmini Devi Arundale helped in raising the social status of Bharatnatyam and popularizing it.  

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you have to list out the different sources that provide information about Bharatnatyam.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain  in brief about the history of Bharatnatyam – Bharatanatyam originated in southern India in the state of Tamilnadu. It started as a temple dance tradition called Dasiyattam (the dance of the maid-servants) 2000 years ago and is perhaps the most advanced and evolved dance form of all the classical Indian dance forms.  Bharata Natyam is known for its grace,purity, tenderness, expression and sculpturesque poses.

Body

  • Discuss the various sources from which we get information about Bharatnatyam – Several texts beginning with Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra (200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.) provide information on this dance form. The Abhinaya Darpana by Nandikesvara is one of the main sources of textual material, for the study of the technique and grammar of body movement in Bharatnatyam Dance. There is also a great deal of visual evidence of this dance form in paintings and stone and metal sculptures of ancient times. On the gopurams of the Chidambaram temple, one can see a series of Bharatnatyam poses, frozen in stone as it were, by the sculptor. In many other temples, the charis and karanas of the dance are represented in sculpture and one can make a study of the dance form.
  • Discuss the role that Rukmini Devi Arundale played in popularizing the movement – Rukmini Devi Arundale was also instrumental in modifying mainly the Pandanallur style of Bharata Natyam and bringing it to the attention of the West. According to Shri Sankara Menon, Rukmini Devi raised Bharata Natyam to a puritan art form, by removing certain emotional elements evocative of the erotic, such as hip, neck, lip and chest movements) from the Pandanallur style.  in 1936 Rukmini Devi Arundale founded the school Kalakshetra outside the city of Madras to teach it and to promote other studies in Indian music and art. She was one of first teachers to instruct a few men to perform the dance.

Conclusion – Comment on the status of Bharatnatyam today and the need to preserve and popularize Bharatnatyam style.

Background:-

  • Bharatanatyam, a pre-eminent Indian classical dance form presumably the oldest classical dance heritage of India is regarded as mother of many other Indian classical dance forms.
  • Conventionally a solo dance performed only by women, it initiated in the Hindu temples of Tamil Nadu and eventually flourished in South India. 

Various sources which provide information about Bharatanatyam:-

  • Theoritical base:-
    • Theoretical base of this form traces back to ‘Natya Shastra’, the ancient Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts. 
    • The Abhinaya Darpanaby Nandikesvara is one of the main sources of textual material, for the study of the technique and grammar of body movement in Bharatnatyam Dance.
    • One of the five great epics of Tamil Literature, ‘Silappatikaram’ (2nd century CE) has a direct reference to this dance form.
  • There is also a great deal of visual evidence of this dance form in paintings and stone and metal sculptures of ancient times.
    • Many ancient Hindu temples are embellished with sculptures of Lord Shiva in Bharatanatyam dance poses.
    • The Shiva temple of Kanchipuram that is decorated with carvings dating back to a period between 6th to 9th centuries CE manifests the development of this dance form by around the mid first millennium CE.
    • The eastern gopuram of the 12th century Thillai Natarajar Temple, Chidambaram, of Tamil Nadu dedicated to Lord Shiva bears sculptures depicting 108 poses of Bharatanatyam, referred as karanas in ‘Natya Shastra’, that are intricately carved in small rectangular panels.
    • Another notable sculpture can be seen in the Cave 1 of Karnataka’s Badami cave temples dating back to the 7th century where a 5 feet tall sculpture of Lord Shiva is depicted as Nataraja doing Tandava dance.
    • In many other temples, the charisand karanas of the dance are represented in sculpture and one can make a study of the dance form.

 

Role of Rukmini Devi Arundale in Reviving Bharatanatyam  :-

  • Honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 1956, Rukmini is best known for her visionary work in the fields of dance, culture, and education that catalysed a renaissance in Indian classical dance forms.
  • She is the person who is credited for the renaissance of Bharatnatyam dance form and more significantly making the dance which was primarily a forte of Devdasis, main stream and respectable in the society.
  • She was the first woman performer other than devadasi to perform bharatanatyam on stage.
  • Originally the dance form Bharatnatyam was known as Sadhir, practiced only by Devdasis who with the advent of British Raj very widely maligned in the society. Thus, she not only revived and resurrected the ancient dance form but also went on to reverse the negative stereotypes associated with the female practitioners of Sadhir.
  • By adopting a puritan approach she eliminated the dance form of its shringaaror erotic leanings and magnified the bhakti or devotional aspect, thereby making it more acceptable to the mainstream of the society.
  • She also introduced modern costumes, temple jewelry, set designs, lighting etc which we know of the trademarks of the modern Bharatnatyam performances.
  • Her unique contribution was to destroy what was crude and vulgar in the inherited traditions of dance and to replace them with sophisticated and refined taste. In this, the dance form received a new lease of life, going on to earn international approval.
  • Other than conceiving and choreographing numerous bharatanatyam pieces, Rukmini developed a unique curriculum to broaden the dance’s appeal, that included aesthetically designed jewellery, costumes and stage scenarios. 
  • She indeed succeeded in giving dance and Bharatnatyam a place of pride in India’s national narrative.

Conclusion:-

  • Rukmini played an instrumental role in transforming the dance form, giving it a new name, and popularizing it all over the world as a respectable art form.

 


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Nandikeswara’s Abhinaya Darpana (Three basic elements Nritta, Natya, Nritya)”

3) Explain with the help of examples the difference between Natya, Nritya and Nritta?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the basic difference between the three terms mentioned above. In examples, we can take any of the classical Indian dance forms and examine the style in which it is performed, falls under which of the three – Nritya, Natya and Nritta

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that according to the Abhinaya Darpanam, the Sangitaratnakara and other medieval treatises, dance is divided into three distinct categories, that is, natya, nritya and nritta.

Body – Explain the difference between the three

  • Natya – Natya corresponds to drama. Natya means dramatic representation or drama with speech, music and dancing. According to Abhinaya Darpanam, Natya or Nataka has some traditional story for its theme is an adorable (art).
  • Nritya – Nritya corresponds to the mime performed to the song. That is in other words, it is the Interpretative dance. The vaachikaabhinaya of natya where the actors themselves use speech, is replaced by the music and song which accompanies dance. According to Abhinaya Darpanam that dance which relates to Sentiment (rasa) and Psychological Staes (bhaava) is called nritya.
  • Nritta – Nritta corresponds to pure dance steps performed rhythmically. Here the movements of the body do not convey any mood or meaning and its purpose is just creating beauty by making various patterns, lines in space and time. According to Abhinaya Darpanam, dance which does not relate to any Psychological State (bhaava) is called nritta.
  • For example, mention that while learning the art of Bharatnatyam, the sequence of Nritta, Nritya, and Natya are followed. The starting items, Alarippu, Kauthuvam, Jathiswaram all come under Nritta. These are followed by Swarajathi, Sabdam and Varnam which come under Nritya and finally the Padams come under the Natya category.

Conclusion – Explain that the movements of Nritta, Nritya and Natya should always be in concordance with the primary standards of Dance. Laya found in Nritta in combination with Bhava becomes Nritya, which in turn when combined with gestures and actions becomes Natya. Natya will ultimately be impressive as well as effective only when there is a harmony between the bodily movements of the dance and emotional expressions of the abhinaya. All great dancers display a perfect blend of all three in each of their performances.

Background:-

  • According to the Abhinaya Darpanam, the Sangitaratnakara and other medieval treatises, dance is divided into three distinct categories, that is, natya, nritya and nritta.

 

Natya:-

  • Natya means abhinaya and it is the combined manifestation of bhava, rasa and abhinaya. Thus Natya is telling the story through dance and music or laya and abhinaya or Nritta and Nritya.
  • Natya corresponds to drama. Natya means dramatic representation or drama with speech, music and dancing. 
  • It contains dialogue, interpretation of moods and mime, music and decor. It covers all the four planes and cause a blend of aesthetic and physical appeal. Only when the subconscious participation in the drama has been evoked can natya be said to fulfill its rightful purpose.
  • Dancers use both nritta (i.e. rhythmic movements) and nritya (i.e. gestures and expressions) to assume a role or a character, and tell the story. 

Nritya:-

  • Nritya consists of footwork and abhinaya. It relates to Rasa and psychological state. Angika abhinaya relating to Hasta, eyes, eye brows, lips etc. are very important in Nritya. It can be termed as the explanatory aspect of dance where hand gestures and facial expressions convey the meaning of the lyrics of the performing song.
  • Bhav of the dancer is of prime importance in this so it can also be considered as the miming aspect of dance. It is the Interpretative dance. The vaachikaabhinaya of natya where the actors themselves use speech, is replaced by the music and song which accompanies dance.
  • It is the combination of both rasa or sentiment and bhava or mood. It is that which produces aesthetic delight in dance drama. It embraces the sattwikangikand to a lesser extent the aharya abhinaya on the astral, divine and visual planes.
  • The three chief features of nritya are the Sattwik abhinaya, the Angik abhinaya and the Aharya abhinaya.

Nritta:-

  • Nritta corresponds to pure dance steps performed rhythmically. Here the movements of the body do not convey any mood or meaning and its purpose is just creating beauty by making various patterns, lines in space and time.
  • It belongs to the realm of angik abhinaya alone and is thus on the divine plane. It is a rigid stylization consisting of pure dance movements .
  • This presentation of dance does not stress on facial expressions. Footwork is given prominence in this. Beat and tempo are the guiding factors for the synchronisation between the rhythm and time.
  • Nritta figures in the first part of a dance performance. It involves bodily movements and consists of chari, rechika, Angaharas, Karanas, Bhramaris, Nrittahastas etc.
  • Nritta is divided into three forms such as Vishama, Vikata and Laghu. Generally, expressional aspect is given less importance and more emphasis is given for the movement of various angas of the body.

Examples:-

  • For instance Kathakali is overwhelmingly dramatic in which a performer enters the stage with elaborate makeup, grand costumes, and headgears belonging exclusively to the world of Myth and Legends. Then, the entire story is enacted with the most significant language of hand gestures. Not a word is spoken except for the weird cries of the demons. In this way, Kathakali is a distinct combination of Natya, Nritta and Nritya.
  • While learning the art of Bharatnatyam, the sequence of Nritta, Nritya, and Natya are followed. The starting items, Alarippu, Kauthuvam, Jathiswaram all come under Nritta. These are followed by Swarajathi, Sabdam and Varnam which come under Nritya and finally the Padams come under the Natya category.
  • The movements of Nritta, Nritya and Natya should always be in concordance with the primary standards of Dance. Laya found in Nritta in combination with Bhava becomes Nritya, which in turn when combined with gestures and actions becomes Natya.

Topic – poverty and developmental issues

4) Economic Survey last year highlighted that India has one of the highest intra country migration among its peers, yet there are several problems faced by migrant workers in India, particularly in unorganized sector. Examine the issues involved and suggest remedial measures?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article highlights the plight of migrant workers, their poor working conditions, wages etc. The article also explains that the existing mechanism hardly take into cognizance these plights and thus corrective actions are not taken. Migration is a reality in India and people travel in the look out for better opportunities to work, improve their standard of life etc. The issue faced by such people and their remedial actions are important for GS1 – Sociology section.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the issues of different kinds faced by the migrant workers. Thereafter, we need to examine the existing checks and balances in the system and explain their shortcomings and suggest corrective actions.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Paint a brief picture of the status and nature of migration in the country along with the reasons. Highlight that the constitution grants us freedom of movement. Highlight the recent incident of attack against UP and Bihari migrants in Gujarat.

Body –

  • Bring out the issues faced by the migrants – poor working conditions, less than minimum wages, segmenting local and migrant population for work, resentment from local workers etc
  • Discuss the importance of migrants in running India’s mega cities and how they contribute to economic growth
  • Highlight the existing regulations and legislations to protect the migrants – Under the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act and other labour laws (for unorganised workers), migrant workers in Gujarat are legally entitled to all their basic labour rights. These include minimum wages, regular wage payment, regular working hours and overtime payment, and decent working and living conditions which include taking care of the health and education of their children. Under the same Act, the governments of the States from where migrant workforce originate are expected to issue licences to contractors who take workers away, register such workers and also monitor their working and living conditions in other States.
  • Discuss the lacunae in the Act and implementation of the Act due to which the problem persists

Conclusion – Discuss the importance  of migrants and the need to protect freedom of movement of these workers and suggest corrective measures.

Background:-

  • The 2011 Census pegs the total number of internal migrants in the country, including those who have moved within and across States, at a staggering 139 million out of which 33 million or 8% of India workforce belong to migrant workers.
  • In recent weeks, Gujarat’s migrant workers, particularly those hailing from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh, experienced mob violence which led them to flee the state in panic.
  • This recent case in a series of such cases over the years captures the dismal lives of poor migrant workers in almost all the prominent cities and towns.

Problems faced by migrant workers in India :-

  • Political:-
    • Regional politicians can blame them for rising unemployment and crime graphs
    • The locals can vent their ire against them for being the cause of collapsing civic amenities
    • Under the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act and other labour laws (for unorganised workers), migrant workers in Gujarat are legally entitled to all their basic labour rights. These include minimum wages, regular wage payment, regular working hours and overtime payment, and decent working and living conditions which include taking care of the health and education of their children. But states hardly implement this .
    • Under the same Act, the governments of the States from where migrant workforce originate are expected to issue licences to contractors who take workers away, register such workers and also monitor their working and living conditions in other States. But most State governments remain indifferent to these laws.
    • Gujarat has taken a few steps but these are far from adequate. In the political sphere, there has been hardly any mention about protecting the legal rights of migrant workers in India. 
    • Gujarat government passed a rule in the 1990s making it mandatory for industries and employers in Gujarat to give 85% of jobs to local people. This rule was never really implemented in reality.
  • Cultural:-
    • The chauvinists can rant against them for not assimilating themselves culturally.
    • They are seen as outsiders by locals
    • Local workers resent the presence of migrant workers who they feel take away their jobs in factories and other places on account of being cheap labour.
  • Violence:-
    • Mumbai, a city that historically has benefited immensely from migrants of all hues and levels of qualifications, migrant workers face periodic bouts of violence particularly unleashed by regional parties.
  • Standard of living and access to schemes:-
    • Poor migrant workers in India face even more precarious work and living conditions than their local counterparts.
    • Whether it is benefiting from welfare schemes or their bargaining power for negotiations for wages and work conditions, they are in a much more vulnerable position.
    • These labourers are exploited, required to work below subsistence levels, and reside in subhuman conditions.
    • Problems of residence leads them to stay in squatter settlements or slums.
    • Less pay parity compared to locals. They earn low wages, work very long hours without any overtime benefits, and are almost without any leave or social protection.
    • Lakhs of unskilled and migrant workers live on worksites in makeshift huts (usually made of tin sheets) or on roads, slums and in illegal settlements not served by municipalities.
    • They are neither able to save much to improve their conditions back in their home States nor save enough to live comfortably in Gujarat.
  • Organisational dilemma:-
    • Even the established trade unions are not of much help to them for a variety of reasons. Many of these workers do not have any presence or agency as far as local government and services are concerned.
    • The migrant workers too prefer to join welfare associations based on regional identity for security and protection.
  • Governance failure:-
    • State does not provide services to them as the migrant workers most often do not proper documents, secure jobs, housing and provisioning of other public utilities .
    • The state systematically derecognises them in most of the cases and they are termed as as “illegal”. Illegality, in turn, results in labels such as criminals
    • Smart cities:-
      • There have been forced evictions and shelter demolitions in 32 out of the 99 proposed smart cities so far. Politically, inter-State migrants do not matter much because their votes do not count in the destination city.
    • Emotional:-
      • As most of them stay away from family they face emotional and psychological issues leading to depression
    • Not all migrant face similar hardships can also be written. Middle class and upper middle class migrants hardship is different from Lower labour class
    • Lack of official data:-
      • Gujarat government has no data on/estimates of migrant workers coming to Gujarat. Informally, the figures are estimated to be between 40 lakh to one crore.

Remedial measures needed :-

  • Lessons from other states:-
    • Kerala government has shown the way by a series of measures for migrant labour in the state.
    • The construction industry, for example, which has a huge percentage of migrant labour, has a welfare board with a Rs.1,000 crore corpus, and the government has announced a survey of migrant workers’ living conditions, and assistance in procuring health insurance and legal aid.
  • The political class and civil society in the country need to shed their cynical and utilitarian view of migrant workers.
  • It must be emphasised that all citizens have the basic right to move anywhere in the country, and that their constitutional rights and duties are to be equally protected. 
  • Real solution to this issue would be to enforce all relevant labour laws for migrant workers so that segmentation of the labour market becomes weak, and workers (local and migrant) get a fair and equal deal in the labour market. This will also weaken unfair competition between local and migrant labour and enable migrant workers either to settle down in the place of destination or to go back home and make a good living there.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

5) In view of the increased role of payments banks, is there a need to create a separate regulator for the sector. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

The govt has recently mooted the idea of a separate regulator for the rapidly developing payments bank sector. Therefore it is important to examine the need for a separate regulator for the sector.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion as to whether there is a need for a separate regulator for payments banks. We have to look into the issue and discuss the role of the other regulator and form an opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple definition of a payments bank- can accept deposits but can’t lend etc. mention a few big players like Airtel, paytm which have entered the business.

Body-

Discuss why there is no need for a separate regulator for payment banks. E.g the activities of payments banks come well within the purview of the traditional banking system, which the central bank oversees as the overarching financial regulator. Soit might make better sense to have the RBI oversee the activities of payments banks as well instead of creating a brand new regulator for the growing industry; Regulation of the banking systems and payment system by the same regulator provides synergy; a new regulator may decrease synergy with the functioning of the RBI etc.

Take the help of other relevant articles, study material to form your answer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Background:-

  • In August 2015, the banking regulator cleared 11 organisations for setting up payments banks. The idea was to introduce more un-banked or under-banked Indians to formal channels.
  • Payments banks are organisations that accept deposits of up to Rs 1 lakh ($1,456) each but are not allowed to lend.
  • Recently  RBI has submitted a dissent note, against certain recommendations of the inter-ministerial committee for finalization of amendments to the Payment & Settlement Systems Act, 2007. The central bank observed that it would prefer the Payments Regulatory Board to function under the purview of the RBI Governor.

Why there is a need for separate regulator for this sector :-

  • Inter-ministerial panel set up to finalize the Payment and Settlement System (PSS) Act had recommended that the payments regulator should be an independent regulator with the chairperson appointed by the government in consultation with the RBI.
  • Independent payments regulatory board (PRB) needs to be established to regulate the payments sector aimed at fostering competition, consumer protection, systemic stability and resilience in the payments sector, said the draft Payment and Settlement System Bill, 2018, submitted by the committee to finalize the amendments to the Payment and Settlement Act, 2007.

Separate regulator is not needed :-

  • Central bank believes that the PRB must remain with the central bank and headed by the RBI governor. The RBI and the government may nominate three members each to the board, with a casting vote for the governor
  • Ratan Watal Committee on digital payments recommended the establishment of the PRB within the overall structure of the RBI, arguing therefore that there is no need for any deviation.
  • There has been no evidence of any inefficiency in payment systems of India.
    • The digital payments have made good and steady progress. India is gaining international recognition as a leader in payment systems. Given this, there need not be any change in a well-functioning system.
  • Payment systems are a sub-set of currency, which is regulated by RBI, the impact of monetary policy provides support for regulation of payment systems to be with the monetary authority.
  • There is an underlying bank account for payment systems under the purview of banking system regulation which is vested with the RBI. Settlement systems are finally posted in the books of account of banks with the RBI to attain settlement finality. So regulating these entities goes hand-in-hand with the settlement function of RBI.
  • Certain payment systems like cards are issued by banks globally and dual regulation over such instruments will not be desirable.
  • RBI stated that the activities of payments banks come well within the purview of the traditional banking system, which the central bank oversees as the overarching financial regulator.
    • So it might make better sense to have the RBI oversee the activities of payments banks as well instead of creating a brand new regulator for the growing industry.
    • Also Regulation of the banking systems and payment system by the same regulator provides synergy,
  • There is definite overlapping between the current regulatory powers of the RBI and the proposed regulations for the payments industry. A unified regulator can thus help in lowering the compliance costs and enabling the seamless implementation of rules.
  • Further, there is the real risk that a brand new regulator may be unable to match the expertise of the RBI in carrying out necessary regulatory duties. So it makes better sense to have the RBI take charge of the rapidly growing payments industry which can ill-afford regulatory errors at this point.

 

Conclusion:-

  • There is a need for coherence and synergy between government and RBI over the regulation of payment banks.

General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) Indian economy is at the crossroads where its economic might and potential is increasing but at the cost of its environment and quality of life.Discuss.(250 words)

economic times

Why this question

Indian economy is growing at a faster pace than any other major economy but at the same time it is important to appreciate the damage to our environment which comes at the cost of development. The article provides a meaningful summary of the position in which India finds itself today.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the state and position of Indian economy. It wants us to discuss about the rise of Indian economy and its environmental implications.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  state of Indian economy- rank in terms of GDP, fastest growing major economy.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the strength and robustness of Indian economy- well functioning democracy, one of the highest growth rate which is poised to jump to double digits; a huge demographic dividend etc.
  2. Discuss the environmental impacts of development. Mention about the need for coal as a source of energy; growing transport emissions; urban and construction waste etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. mention the importance of programmes like National Solar Mission and other renewable energy missions; Clean Ganga and other such river rejuvenation programmes etc.

 

Background :-

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) reaffirmed that Indiawill be the fastest growing major economy in 2018, with a growth rate of 7.4 per cent that rises to 7.8 per cent in 2019.

India’s economic potential :-

  • India has sustained rapid growth of GDP for most of the last two decades leading to rising per capita incomes and a reduction in absolute poverty. Per capita incomes (measured in US $) have doubled in 12 years.
  • A fast-growing population of working age:-
    • There are 700 million Indians under the age of 35 and the demographics look good for Indian growth in the next twenty years at least. India is India is experiencing demographic transition that has increased the share of the working-age population from 58 percent to 64 percent over the last two decades.
  • India has a strong legal system and many English-language speakers – this has been a key to attracting inward investment from companies such as those specialising in IT out-sourcing.
  • Wage costs are low in Indiaand India has made strides in recent years in closing some of the productivity gap between her and other countries at later stages of development.
  • India’s economy has successfully developed highly advanced and attractive clusters of businesses in the technology space – witness the rapid emergence of Bangalore as a hub for global software businesses. External economies of scale have deepened their competitive advantages in many related industries.
  • All these factors are strengthened by the well functioning democratic system in India.

However the economic growth has been at the cost of environment:-

  • According to government data over the last 30 years ,forests nearly two thirds the size of Haryana have been lost to encroachments and industrial projects.
  • Between 2008-17 nearly 20000 trees have been cut in Bengaluru to make way for flyovers ,road widening and other projects.
  • Identifying and quantifying the ecosystem services for the purpose of damage assessment is a difficult task in the absence of relevant data.
  • Water scarcity ,high levels of pollution, extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of floods and droughts could strain an economy fighting to grow.
  • Health challenges, increase in income equality ,increased pollution and depletion of natural resources are becoming a reality in India.
  • Development policies give more priority to income and employment generation and implementation of pollution control policies has been very poor.
  • At present the price of the commodity covers only the private cost of production and not the damage cost. This makes the commodity relatively cheaper leading to more demand and output and more pollution and environmental damage cost.
  • Lack of implementation of environment laws:-
    • Multiplicity of authorities for environmental management and poor coordination among them.

 

Way forward:-

  • India needs to strengthen participatory processes such as public hearings in the environmental and forest clearance process
  • The green GDP is a step forward for India if it wishes to account for true economic growth and its holistic wealth
  • Industries across sectors must come together on a common platform to address the issues concerning economic development and environmental protection.
  • Market bases instruments such as pollution tax and tradable pollution permits must be carried out.
  • Switching from non renewables to renewable sources of energy and materials targeting cleaner production.
  • Improving energy efficiency in industry is one of the most cost effective measure.
  • India should work with foreign governments and global organisations to find ways of subsidizing clean fuel and cleaning our rivers and aquifers.

General Studies – 4


Topic-Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

7) What do you think are the core values in public administration. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to decide as to what are the core values in public administration and then write at length about their role and importance for the ethical perspective.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the growing  complexity and increasing demands for greater efficiency of public administration. Mention the role of values as a source of guidance in policy formulation, decision making and execution.

Body-

Discuss individually the core values that you think are necessary as far as public administration is concerned. Discuss the role and importance of-

  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Professionalism
  • Objectivity
  • Compassion
  • Justice

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

Public administrators must conduct themselves in a manner that shows the public that they are trustworthy. This means adhering to core values for the safety and good of the public. Core values are more than just beliefs and principles; they are motivations that incite actions. Public administrators must adhere to all the core values to earn public trust.

Some of the core values are :-

  • Professionalism
    • Being a public administrator comes with a degree of prestige because of the public spotlight. Therefore, public administrators must always act professionally. Anything they do can damage their reputation. This is the first core value and means dressing appropriately and acting fairly to the public. Professional values incorporate character traits such as responsibility, dependability, efficiency, competence, objectivity, and confidence.
  • Ethics
    • After professional values comes ethical values. Public administrators must act with integrity in all of their doings to earn public trust. Integrity means always being honest and fair, whether it is with neighbors, friends, or businesses.
    • Everything a public administrator does and says can be looked upon by the public. Many public administrators have been caught deceiving the public or acting unethically, and it often ruins their careers.
    • Public administrators must always show integrity and be mindful of laws and regulations. They must not use their power in the wrong way. If you want to become a public administrator, you must be willing to be under constant scrutiny by the public.
  • Accountability
    • Public administrators are employed by the public and held accountable for their words and actions. Democratic values involve accountability and dependability.
    • Essentially, this means being professional in all ways and doing what you say you’re going to do. Without accountability, public trust cannot be established. Additionally, public administrators need to ensure the public has access to information by being as transparent as possible.
  • Objectivity
    • Objectivity is the another public administration core value. It entails respect, equality, and fairness. It doesn’t matter whether someone has money or not, they must be treated fairly.
    • It is a public administrator’s job to make sure that the laws created do not infringe on any person’s rights. Everyone should be treated equally and with respect.
  • Legitimacy:
    • The public interest might also be considered as significant value. Although, there are numerous types and source of legitimacy, the term can be defined simply as the popular acceptance of a governing regime, in this case public administration.
    • More specially, legitimacy arises when the governed consent to the governing institution and believes that those institutions will rule in the public interest. 
  • Public Interest:
    • There is a common good that is different than the aggregate of private benefit and that 
      common good is something that is in the interest of the larger community, even if it is against the interest  of some individuals in the community. 
  • Integrity and Honesty:
    • Public servants hold their office in trust, which underlines two principles they shall 
      not use public office for private gain and they shall act impartially and not give preferential treatment to any private organization or individual. 
  • Spirit of Service and Sacrifice:
    • It is an essential ingredient of public services and public officials should feel inspired that they are working for a national cause.