Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Industrial regions”
4) Analyze the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India.(250 words)
Key demand of the question
The question expects us to explain what do we mean by decentralised cotton textile industry in India. Next we need to explain the reasons why cotton textile industry in India is decentralised in India
Analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.
Structure of the answer
Introduction – Mention that At present, cotton textile industry is largest organised modem industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth of this industry during the last four decades. About 16 per cent of the industrial capital and over 20 per cent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry.
Body – Explain that initially textile industry developed in certain major centres such as Mumbai, Surat etc which had all the factors that are responsible for location of textile industries. Mention factors such as easy transportation, cheap labour, closer to market etc. Next, discuss the reasons for decentralization of cotton textile industry such as – Dispersal of industry from the old nuclei started after 1921 with railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region. New centres like Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara were favourably located in respect to raw material, market and labour than places of original locations. This industry also reached some places with some additional advantages, such as nearness to coal (Nagpur), financial facilities (Kanpur) and wide market with port facilities (Kolkata); Dispersal of cotton textile industry was further boosted with the development of hydroelectricity. The growth of this industry in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli is largely due to the availability of hydroelectricity from Pykara dam. The industry also tended to shift from areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost. The labour cost factor played a crucial role in establishing this industry at Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore etc.