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1) Migration from rural areas to urban spaces in search of livelihood opportunities has transformed human society, and still continues to drive economic and social development. Critically examine. (250 words)

Topic–  Urbanization – their problems and their remedies.

1) Migration from rural areas to urban spaces in search of livelihood opportunities has transformed human society, and still continues to drive economic and social development. Critically examine. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses FAO’s report SOFA which discusses the impact migration has on improving food security and change in policy paradigm which is required in migration control strategies. Off late, the thrust on sociology in GS1 has increased and hence this question which will help you prepare a critical analysis of the benefits of migration.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the reasons and impacts of migration from rural to urban areas. The impact should also discuss the impact that SOFA report says that migration has on food security. Finally, we need to conclude by mentioning the change that must be brought in our approach to migration related policies for maximum benefit.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that as a result of rapid economic growth for past few decades, since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, India has been experiencing the rapid urbanization flow from rural to urban migration which is having multiple impacts.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons for rural to urban migration – marriage, better socio economic opportunities etc
  • Discuss the impact that such migration has on the lives of the migrants. First highlight the positive aspects such as better quality of life etc. Here, also explain the linkage discussed in the article between migration and food security. Next, discuss the issues with rural to urban migration.

Conclusion – Give your view on the utility of rural to urban migration and discuss way forward – priority is to have policy coherence among migration, agriculture and rural development to ensure safe, orderly, and regular migration. Policies should not aim at reducing or accelerating migratory flows, but rather maximising the economic and social benefits while minimising costs to migrants and societies.