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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “ Soils of India”

1) Explain the main causes and effects of soil erosion in India, as well as prevention or soil erosion techniques?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the reasons why soil erosion happens, the ill impact caused by soil erosion as well as an explanation of the various techniques to control soil erosion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what soil erosion is.

Body – One by one, answer the parts of the question.

  • Causes – Over-grazing, Deforestation, Action of wind, water, glacier, etc.Topography viz. steep slopes & heavy rainfall; Faulty methods of agriculture, over – irrigation, shifting agriculture etc; Other anthropogenic factors viz. mining, industrial activities etc.
  • Impacts – Loss of fertile top soil, Lowering of the underground water table and decreasing soil moisture, Drying of vegetation and extension of arid lands, Increase in the frequency of droughts and floods, Silting of river and canal beds, Recurrence of landslides
  • Methods of control – Terrace farming, contour ploughing etc. Also explain them.

Topic– History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) There were many similarities between German Nazism and  Mussolini’s fascist system, but there were also some important differences. Analyze.(250 words)

World History by Norman Lowe; THE RISE OF FASCISM AND GOVERNMENTS OF THE RIGHT

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the similarities as well as differences between the German Nazism and Italian Fascism of the time.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about German Nazism and Italian Fascism- their main leaders and the period when they were prevalent in their respective countries.

Body-

  1. Discuss the similarities between Nazism and Italian Fascism. E.g Both were intensely anti-communist and, because of this, drew a solid basis of support from all classes; They were anti-democratic and attempted to organize a totalitarian state, controlling industry, agriculture and the way of life of the people, so that personal freedom was limited; They attempted to make the country self-sufficient; They emphasized the close unity of all classes working together to achieve these ends etc.
  2. Discuss the differences between the two. E.g Fascism never seemed to take root in Italy as deeply as the Nazi system did in Germany; The Italian system was not as efficient as that in Germany; The Italian system was not as ruthless or as brutal as that in Germany and there were no mass atrocities; Mussolini was more successful than Hitler with his religious policy after his agreement with the pope in 1929; their constitutional positions were different etc.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

3) With a scheme like Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya yojana, our state capacity now needs to go far beyond the health sector, to ensure success. Examine. (250 words)

Indian express

Why this question.

The article discusses the things to be monitored to ensure success of PMJAY, which go beyond the requirements of health sector. PMJAY, is one of the most ambitious health scheme launched in the country and a lot is riding on its success. Examining Ng whether state capacity is sufficient to deal with challenges that might emanate from the scheme is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what is envisaged under PMJAY, and thereafter examine the resons why is it that state capacity needs to go beyond state and the likely impacts of it.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain about PMJAY

Body

  • Highlight that schemes based in health insurance brings with it its own set of special concerns. Discuss the concerns such as the need to deal with price externality and uniformity, the issue of top up prices etc.
  • Thereafter, we need to analyze state capacity and ability to deal with challenges mentioned herein
  • Finally, we need to discuss the impact of such challenges are not dealth with effectively – the scheme might follow the path followed by other insurance based health schemes

Conclusion – Give your view on the existing state capacity to deal with implementation of PMJAY and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) Explain the reasons behind the recently witnessed Rupee slide. What are the options available with the RBI to ameliorate the situation. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Economic times

Why this question

The Indian Rupee has been at its historic low. It is important to analyze the reasons behind the same and also the options available with the the central bank to ameliorate the situation.

Directive word

Explain-Here we have to make something clear or easy to understand by describing or giving information about it.

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to bring out the reasons behind the recent slide in Indian currency. It then wants us to write in detail about the possible and feasible responses that the RBI can undertake under such circumstances.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the recent rupee slide.

Body-

  1. Discuss the reasons behind the present depreciation of Indian currency. E.g The Spike in oil prices has pulled down the rupee, by pushing up dollar demand; Global Trade war fears triggered by the US and China’s retaliatory import tariffs have also weakened the Rupee; The Chinese yuan has fallen sharply in the last few sessions; This has triggered a dollar flight from many emerging economies; The Spurt in dollar outflow has pulled down most Asian currencies, including the rupee.
  2. Discuss the options available with the RBI. Try to list all possible options, with the more feasible ones mentioned first. E.g Signal higher rates by raising repo rates could incentivise foreign investors to invest in Indian markets; Buy bonds and infuse rupee liquidity through open-market operations; Lower cash reserve ratio or CRR that commercial banks need to park mandatorily with RBI. This could help free up more monetary resources in the system

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Major crops and cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage.

5) The management of shifting cultivation remains a fundamental imperative for agricultural development planning in the uplands of northeast India. Why do you think shifting cultivation is still practiced. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

Shifting cultivation has important economic and environmental costs. The NITI Aayog has recently released a paper on the related issue.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the reasons as to why shifting cultivation is still practiced in some parts of India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  jhum/ shifting cultivation in India.

Body-

Discuss the reasons as to why the practice is still prevalent in India. E.g The new crops and cropping patterns have severely limited the seasonal availability of food crops and, in the case of plantation crops, restricted and compromised food availability during the gestation period, resulting in food insecurity. Food availability, and a compromised sense of nutritional security, thus becomes an issue of concern during transition. This is one of the reasons why a good number of farmers continue shifting cultivation even after adopting some alternative farming system; Changing land use and tenurial security; Challenges to ecosystem services; Access to programmes and schemes;  Credit facilities are extended against land mortgages and for shifting cultivators this effectively deprives them from accessing credit as they lack any land title deeds etc.

Go through the report to frame your answer.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government.

6) What do you think are the different types (levels)  of leadership in public service. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the different stages of leadership (in terms of levels of leadership) in public service.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the meaning of leadership.

Body-

Discuss separately the stages of leadership. E.g

  1. The Brute Force Model- You do what I tell you to do or I will hurt you!” .
  2. Leadership through Stripes- “You do what I tell you to do because I have two chevrons on my sleeve and you have one.”
  3. Leadership by Expertise- “you do what I ask you to do because I can show you how to do it and you can learn.”
  4. Leadership through Espirit´- The group is so completely focused on a shared mission that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Discuss each style briefly and bring out the pros and cons of each style.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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