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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 OCTOBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Drainage – India”

1) Explain how the major geological events of the past shaped the peninsular drainage system?(250 words)

NCERT Class XI India physical geography Pg 27

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to list the major geological events of the past that impacted the peninsular drainage system. We also need to explain how these events affected the drainage system as in the characteristic features of Peninsular Drainage system

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief overview of peninsular drainage system.

Body

  • List the major geological factors that impacted peninsular drainage system – Geologists believe that the Sahyadri-Aravali axis was the main water divide in the past; The western part of the Peninsula cracked and submerged in the Arabian Sea during the early Tertiary period ; upheaval of Himalayas; slight tilting of peninsular block from NW to SE direction
  • Discuss the impact that these events causes which manifest themselves in characteristic features of peninsular river system such as – one drainage was towards east flowing into Bay of Bengal and the other towards west draining into Arabian Sea; During the collision of the Indian plate, the Peninsular block was subjected to subsidence in few regions creating a series of rifts (trough, faults) through which these rivers flow, Straight coastline, steep western slope of the Western Ghats, and the absence of delta formations etc

General Studies – 2


Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) India’s drone use policy makes the possibility of a red tape-free flight very slim. Analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Indianexpress

Why this question

Drones and UAVs have numerous applications and in the coming age of fourth industrial revolution, their importance is only going to increase. In this regard the Indian govt has recently released the maiden drone-use policy. It is important to examine the policy and bring out its shortcomings.

Directive word

examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out how the recently released guidelines on drone use, make the possibility of red-tape very slim.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the recently released guidelines by the DGCA- e.g briefly discuss the definition of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) and RPAS.

Body-

Discuss in points/paragraphs, how the new policy enhances the chances of red-tapism. E.g

India’s regulations separate drones into five categories — nano, micro, small, medium and large. There is very little regulation for flying a nano up to 50 metres height, except for not flying near airports, military sites or in segregated airspace; a unique identification number (UIN) for each drone, with a long list of documentation including security clearances from the MHA in several cases. Once the UIN is obtained, operators have to apply for an Unmanned Aircraft Operator Permit (UAOP), implying more forms, more annexures and more submissions. Even to fly a micro drone below 200 ft, users have to intimate the local police station 24 hours prior; Manufacturers of drones as well as technologists and researchers making applications using drones have to test fly these frequently, often several times a day etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic–  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Tribal communities lag behind the general population on most health parameters. Critically Examine.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Health is an important and probably one of the most critical indicator of development. Tribals are one of the most marginalized sections of Indian society and in this regard it is important to discuss in detail the reasons behind their poor health.

Directive word

Critically examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to find out the reasons as to why the tribal population of India fares poor in most of the health parameters and then form a concluding and substantive opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  tribal communities in India, their proportion in the population and the environmental conditions in which they live.

Body-

Mention that health is an interplay of a number of social, political, cultural, environmental and genetic factors; Access to healthcare depends on a number of factors of which female literacy is an important determinant — it is instrumental in shaping a group’s healthcare seeking behaviour. According to the 2011 Census, the female literacy of Scheduled Tribes is 56.5 per cent; this is almost 10 per cent below the national rate and is one reason for tribal groups doing poorly on health parameters. Financial insecurity is another major cause of the ill-health of tribal people; The poor health of an ethnic group is very often a result of the exclusion of that group from a country’s national imagination; Exclusion and marginalisation of a group leads to poverty, which in turn makes people from such groups vulnerable to diseases. This holds true for India’s Scheduled Tribes as well; Moreover, some Scheduled Tribe communities are known to be vulnerable to specific diseases — people of Odisha’s Gond tribe, for example, are susceptible to sickle cell disease etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g Improving the health of Scheduled Tribes requires a multi-pronged approach. However, honest attempts at inclusion — politically, administratively and socially — should be behind all such endeavours. Measures to tackle group specific health issues and capacity building of a group in terms of improving their education and literacy, would go a long way in promoting their health.


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) An uncertain policy environment and the lack of supporting infrastructure are major roadblocks to adoption of Electric Vehicles in India. Analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article examines the challenges faced by electric vehicle sector in India. The article delves into the policy and infrastructure loopholes that hasn’t allowed the sector to grow at the pace necessary. Since PM has targeted unleashing an era of electric mobility, the topic is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status of electric vehicles sector in India, the issues and challenges faced by them, evaluate whether the slow growth can be attributed to the policy and infrastructural lacunae. Thereafter, we need to provide a way forward as to how the performance of this sector can be bettered.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that India wants to create a robust and affordable electric mobility ecosystem comprising production facilities and a large network of charging points to achieve three key strategic goals—cutting down carbon emissions, creating new job opportunities and reduce use of crude oil, about 80% of the requirement of which is met through imports. The goal is to have 30% electric vehicles by 2030.

Body

  • Discuss the status quo with respect to electric vehicles and highlight the challenges faced – EV market currently has one of the lowest penetration rates in the world.
  • Discuss the challenges – Capital costs are high and the payoff is uncertain; India’s limited ability to manufacture cost effective batteries, requirement of raw materials like Li and Co; inadequate battery charging infrastructure etc
  • Analyze the reasons behind these challenges. Scrutinize government’s policies related to this sector to come to a conclusion whether policy lacunae are partly to blame – frequent shifting of targets and uncertain future of FAME, high rate of GST on EVs when government is trying to promote EVs, lack of attention on building charging infrastructure etc.
  • Discuss how the situation can be improved such through policies such as treating the entire EV sector as one close knit ecosystem driven by models of sustainable generation and consumptions, clarifying policies under FAME II etc

Conclusion – Give your view on where improvement in needed and end on a hopeful note that with firm policy direction and robust infrastructure, we can hope to improve on our current situation.


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

5) Discuss the status, achievements and challenges that remain as the Swachh Bharat Mission enters into its final stage?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the achievements made under SBM, the challenges that remain still and the way forward for the mission, as it enters into its final year. Since the Mission is one of the focus areas of the government and it is entering into its final year of implementation, it would do well to prepare about the status, achievements and challenges of the mission.

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. It expects us to explain what SBM is and thereafter, discuss the status of projects under SBM, the achievements of the mission, the challenges faced and the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – In your discussion, you need to bring out points to highlight the status, achievements and challenges of SBM.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the target under SBM and mention that it is to be achieved by 2019.

Body

  • Discuss the status quo – 24 States have become open-defecation free. The number of toilets built is 8.6 crore. Sanitation coverage has gone up from 39% when we started four years ago to over 93% today. What is even more significant is that, according to the most recent independent survey, as part of a World Bank-supported project, the usage of the toilets is 93% etc
  • Discuss the achievements – programme has really caught on as a jan andolan . It has become a ‘people’s movement’. It has captured the imagination of the country. It has addressed centuries-old practices on open defecation, and it has had major health and economic impact. A recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report has said that by the time Swachh Bharat ends in 2019, more than 3,00,000 lives would have been saved, behavioural change programme that is at the heart of Swachh Bharat — there is evidence that it is really working.
  • Discuss with the help of your wide reading, as well as points from the article, the lacunae that remains in the programme – a rush to achieve targets, faulty infrastructure, clearing sludge etc

Conclusion – Give your opinion on the achievement under this mission and what more needs to be done in the remaining year to ensure that we truly manage to create an ODF India.


General Studies – 3


Topic -Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices.

6) Excessive input subsidies have caused large-scale inefficiencies in the agriculture system. Critically analyze.(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

India is largely an agricultural country in that 48% of the population is still dependent on agriculture, although the contribution of agriculture to GDP is around 16% only. In this sense it is important to analyze how input subsidies in agriculture impact the agriculture system in the country.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about India’s agriculture. E.g its contribution to GDP, population still dependent on agriculture etc.

Body-

  1. Mention that  public capital formation in agriculture has been declining from 3.9 percent of agri-GDP in 1980-81 to 2.2 per cent in 2014-15 — it recovered to 2.6 per cent in 2016-17 — while input subsidies on fertilisers, water, power, crop insurance and agri-credit have risen from 2.8 percent to 8 percent of the agricultural GDP during the same period.
  2. Discuss how input subsidies in agriculture have impacted the overall agriculture system. E.g the rapid increase in input subsidies has squeezed public investments in agriculture; excessive input subsidies have caused large-scale inefficiencies in the agriculture system. For example, fertiliser subsidies, especially on urea, have led to the imbalanced use of soil nutrients. The subsidy on irrigation water has resulted in an inefficient use of scarce water. Highly subsidised power has led to over-exploitation of groundwater. Subsidy on the interest rates on crop loans has diverted substantial amounts of agri-credit to non-agricultural use. Although the new crop insurance scheme, PMFBY, has dramatically reduced the burden of premium paid by farmers, its effective implementation and the quick settlement of claims into farmers’ accounts remains a challenge etc

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g investment in public irrigation is very expensive, as it involves long lags, and the gap between the potential created and potential utilised has increased over time. To give higher returns, this leaky system must be fixed, it should be made more transparent and the gap between potential created and utilised bridge; Second, the present system of delivering subsidies through the pricing policy needs to be shifted to an income policy, which could be well-targeted, and leakages minimised— on the lines of JAM trinity; Third, investments need to be prioritised towards agricultural research and development, roads and education etc.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) Is There A Difference Between Ethics And Morality. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the difference between ethics and morality.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the relationship between the terms ethics and morality. E.g mention that the terms are often used interchangeably.

Body-

Discuss in points the difference between ethics and morality. E.g

  1. Ethics focuses on the decision-making process for determining right and wrong, which sometimes is a matter of weighing the pros and cons or the competing values and interest. Morality is a code of behavior usually based on religious tenets, which often inform our ethical decisions.
  2. Morals come from within. One’s own internal compass. Ethics are more extrinsic rule sets to guide us all.
  3. Ethics deals with codes of conduct set my policies in the workplace and morality is the standards that we individually set for ourselves in regards to right and wrong.
  4. Ethics is a set of principles developed purposefully over time. Morality is something one feels intuitively.
  5. Ethics is a map of how one makes choices. Morality is an established code that can be used to judge behavior.
  6. Ethics contains standards of what should be. What we “ought” to do. Morality is more of what we do – how we actually behave – focused on what “is” etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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