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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 29 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Norman Lowe; Mastering World History; International Relations, 1919-33

1) A number of successor states were born out of the first world war but most of those successor states soon developed serious problems and weaknesses. Examine.(250 words)

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to probe deeper into the formation of several successor states which were born out of the first world war and bring out the reasons as to why those successor states developed serious problems and weaknesses.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the outcome of the first world war and the successor states formed after the war. e.g mention the breakup of Austria-Habsburg empire and loss of territory by Russia and Germany out of which a number of successor states were formed including Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary and Poland.

Body

Discuss in points the weaknesses of those states and the reasons of their failure. e.g There were so many different nationalities in the region that it was impossible for them all to have their own state. Consequently it was only the larger national groups which were lucky enough to have their own homeland. Smaller nationalities found themselves once again under what they considered to be ‘foreign’ governments, which, so they claimed, did not look after their interests – for example, Croats in Yugoslavia, Slovaks and Germans in Czechoslovakia, and Germans, White Russians and Ukrainians in Poland; Czechoslovakia was the only one in which democracy survived for a significant length of time; They all suffered economic difficulties, especially after the onset of the Great Depression in the early 1930s; The states were divided by rivalries and disputes over territory etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Norman Lowe; Mastering World History; The spread of communism outside Europe.

2) Discuss the reasons behind the 1950 Korean War. Also discuss the impact of the war on Korea and on international relations.(250 words)

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the reasons behind the 1950 Korean War and then write at length about the impact of war on Korea and international relations at that time.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the 1950 Korean War. e.g defeat of Japan in the second world war and division of the country along the 38th parallel and mention the influence of Russia in the North and America in the south etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the reasons behind the Korean War. e.g it was not intended to be a permanent division. The United Nations wanted free elections for the whole country and the Americans agreed, believing that since their zone contained two-thirds of the population, the communist north would be outvoted. However, the unification of Korea, like that of Germany, soon became part of Cold War rivalry: no agreement could be reached, and the artificial division continued ; Elections were held in the south, supervised by the UN, and the independent Republic of Korea, or South Korea; The following month, the Russians created the Democratic People’s Republic  o f Korea , o r North Korea under the communist g o v e r n m e n t; In 1949 Russian and American troops were withdrawn, leaving a potentially dangerous situation: most Koreans bitterly resented the artificial division forced on their country by outsiders, but both leaders claimed the right to rule the whole country etc.
  • Discuss the impact of the war. e.g USA took direct action in the war; American policy therefore changed decisively: instead of just economic help and promises of support, Truman decided it was essential for the West to take a stand by supporting South Korea. American troops in Japan were ordered to Korea even before the UN had decided what action to take; The Chinese government was seriously alarmed; For Korea itself it was a disaster: the country was devastated, about four million Korean soldiers and civilians had been killed and five million people were homeless. The division seemed permanent; both states remained intensely suspicious of each other and heavily armed, and there were constant ceasefire violations; The UN had exerted its authority and reversed an act of aggression, but the communist world denounced it as a tool of the capitalists.
  • The military performance of communist China was impressive; she had prevented the unification of Korea under American influence and was now clearly a world power etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic: Geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features
(including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

3) Explain the causes and region wise distribution of pre monsoon showers?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how monsoon showers and the reasons why such showers occur and the consequences of such showers.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain pre monsoon showers along with time when it happens. Discuss the reasons why such showers occur and the consequences of such showers.

Body

  • mention the names of pre monsoon showers as they are known in different parts of the country and their causes such as localised conventional currents, western disturbances etc
  • Mention about cyclonic storms which causes rainfall in coastal regions.
  • Discuss the positive and ill effects of such showers like the destructive impact of Norwesters,  the positive impact of Mango showers etc
  • A representation of map would fetch you extra marks

General Studies – 3


Topic–  Indian polity : Issues

4) Discuss the verdict of SC in Jarnail Singh v. Lachhmi Narrain Gupta and explain the constitutional basis of the verdict?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

Reservation has been a contentious issue in Indian polity, and the issue of reservation in promotions has been under the scanner as a result of the recent SC verdict. The topic is important for mains and needs to be prepared in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the verdict in this case as well as the verdict in Nagaraj case which has been referred to in the current verdict of SC. We also need to discuss the constitutional principles under question in this case and discuss the safeguards given by the court in reservation in promotions.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the verdict of the court in Jarnail Singh v. Lachhmi Narrain Gupta case.

Body

  • Discuss the verdict of the court in Nagraj case and discuss the safeguards mentioned in that case – the three questions that were to be asked in case of reservation in promotions.
  • Discuss the constitutional principles related to reservation in article 16(4) of constitution and how the court has ensured in the present case that the principles enshrined in the article are not violated.

Conclusion – Summarize your answer based on arguments made above and highlight how the constitutional question related to reservation have been settled through this verdict.

 


Topic – Indian polity : Issues

5) The Supreme Court has recently decriminalized Section 377 and Section 497 of IPC, which strikes a blow for individual rights. Analyze. (250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

SC has recently decriminalized section 377 and section 497 of IPC which has removed some of the vestiges of colonial era laws from our constitution and takes us on the path towards achieving the ideals enshrined in our constitution. How the verdict impacts individual rights would help us enhance our understanding of part 3 of our constitution.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the verdict of SC in above cases and explain how the verdict upholds individual autonomy which is a common thread running across the rights enshrined in Articles 14, 19, 21 – the holy Trinity of our constitution. Finally, we need to give a forward looking view of how the judiciary has ensured that these laws which are the vestiges of colonial era are being removed.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the background of the recent verdict given by SC in Section 377 and 497 of IPC

Body – Explain the verdict in both the cases. Highlight how the rights uphold individual autonomy and freedom which so far have been curbed by law and society imposed morality. Explain how the verdict upholds the principles of gender equality, individual autonomy etc. Quote liberally from the statement of judges.

Conclusion – Highlight that we are moving ahead on the path of individual rights and we need to take care of other such vestiges of colonial era, for which parliament needs to take responsibility.


Topic – Indian Polity: Issues

6) What do you understand by doctrine of proportionality in judicial review? Examine how doctrine of proportionality led to upholding the constitutional validity of Aadhar?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The judgment given by court in Aadhar case is a landmark one which leads to settlement of several debates related to privacy, the constitutionality of Aadhar etc. Doctrine of proportionality has been utilized by the courts in upholding Aadhar and needs to be understood.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what doctrine of proportionality is and how the principle led to Aadhar being held constitutionally valid. The utilization of this doctrine requires the law under question to balance the pros and cons. We have to do the same in the question.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – mention about the judgement of the court in Aadhar case and the questions under scrutiny.

Body

  • Explain what doctrine of proportionality is – In the test of Proportionality the courts will quash exercise of discretionary powers in which there is no reasonable relation between the objective which is sought to be achieved and the means used to that end, or where punishments imposed by administrative bodies or inferior courts are wholly out of proportion to the relevant misconduct. So the administrative action which arbitrarily discriminates will be quashed by the court. The implication of the principle of proportionality is that the court will weigh for itself the advantages and disadvantages of an administrative action and such an action will be upheld as valid if and only if the balance is advantages
  • Explain that the same doctrine led to the judgment of court. mention how keeping in view the proportionality test, SC the majority opinion refrained from answering whether the decision to pass Aadhar Act as a money bill is unconstitutional.
  • Also highlight the debates wrt privacy, the socio economic objectives of Aadhar, the safeguards in the Act and the sections declared ultra vires to further explain how the said doctrine in applicable in this case.

Conclusion – Summarize your answer and give your view on the future of Aadhar.


Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and
behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) Preventive vigilance attempts to eliminate or reduce the scope for corruption in the long run. Discuss.(250 words)

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about preventive vigilance and how it attempts to eliminate or reduce the scope for corruption in the long run.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about preventive vigilance- e.g preventive vigilance aims to prevent unethical and corrupt behavior and action rather than treat them etc.

Body-

Discuss further about the preventive vigilance. e.g The main emphasis in proactive vigilance has been on identifying suspected corrupt elements and then devising mechanisms to weed them out or to ensure that they do not occupy sensitive positions; Discuss the tools for preventive vigilance. e.g List of Officers of Doubtful Integrity containing the names of all officers against whom disciplinary action on some vigilance related issue is pending or who is undergoing punishment on a vigilance related matter; Agreed List of Suspect Officers containing the names of those officers on whom there is a strong suspicion of indulging in corruption. These officers are kept under watch; List of Undesirable Middlemen containing the names of middlemen, touts, etc, dealing with sensitive organizations etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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