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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – Monsoon break

1) Explain what happens during break monsoon period and the reason why break in monsoon occurs?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what break in monsoon is, the characteristic feature of monsoon break and the reasons why break in monsoon happens.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what break monsoon is – During the Monsoon season, there are periods when the Monsoon trough shifts closer to the foothills of Himalayas, which leads to sharp decrease in rainfall over most parts of the country. However, rainfall increase along the foothills of Himalayas, Northeast India and parts of the Southern Peninsula. Such a synoptic situation is known as the ‘break’ Monsoon period.

Body

  • Explain its characteristic feature. These breaks in the different regions are due to different reasons:
    • In northern India rains are likely to fail if the rain-bearing storms are not very frequent
      along the monsoon trough or the ITCZ over this region.
    • Over the west coast the dry spells are associated with days when winds blow parallel to
      the coast.
  • Explain the reasons why break in monsoon occurs – When tropical disturbances advance along the monsoon trough, sometimes the sea level low pressure area weakens and making the low pressure area from 900 mb to 700 mb height to move north of the trough. As the high level low pressure area moves north, precipitation decreases in the northern plains. This makes the low pressure area over North Bay of Bengal to be replaced with a high pressure area. This makes the monsoon trough along the west coast to weaken and monsoon winds from Bay of Bengal branch alone feed the monsoon trough which runs along the foothill of Himalayas and North east India. This results in less or no rainfall across west coast, Deccan plateau and Northern plains. But a low pressure trough forms over the Tamil Nadu coast increasing the rainfall. As the monsoon trough runs close to foothills of Himalayas, monsoon winds ascend the slopes of Himalayas resulting in orthographic rainfall. This is how a monsoon break works.

General Studies – 3


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Purchasing power parity”

2) When it comes to GDP figures, GDP measured through PPP overestimates India’s social and economic growth. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what PPP measurement of GDP is and how good an indicators is PPP based GDP in evaluating the socio economic progress of the country. We need to present both sides of the debate and end with a fair and balanced conclusion

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what PPP measurement of GDP is – Purchase Power Parity gives an idea about the strength of nation’s currency when pegged against currency of another nation on the basis of buying same quality of goods/services in their respective nations. India’s nominal GDP is 10th in world while when calculated on PPP basis it is third only after US and China.

Body

  • Explain that based on this technique the GDP calculated does indeed highlight that India has great growth potential. However this growth story comes with caveat of huge economic inequality. It proves that GDP ranking based on PPP is not correct measure of socio-economic development because it presents relative strength of currency for huge GDP in India. As India is huge in economy, resource rich and cheap in service, hence Goods/Services are cheaper here. Hence, our PPP is higher.
  • Highlight that because of our diverse demography, economy activities, economic disparity between Rural and Urban, we need a more robust analysis of growth based on
    • Nominal GDP for GDP indexing
    • HDI for human development and prosperity measurement
    • Gender based GDP to give gender-wise production.
    • GDP share by Rural and Urban settlements. Sector wise GDP and growth

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on the hypothesis made in the question.


Topic–  Indian polity : Issues

3) The Supreme Court finds a pragmatic middle path between the Aadhaar scheme excesses and its benefits to the marginalised. Analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Indian express

Why this question

SC’s judgment upholding the constitutional validity of Aadhar is a landmark judgment. The articles analyzes the verdict in detail and explains the implications of the verdict – the good along with the bad. Preparing this topic in detail is required, and newspapers will be flooded with opinion pieces examining the verdict over the next few days.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the verdict and highlight that how the verdict is a balancing act. We need to discuss the verdict in details and highlight the things that Aadhar can be used for and areas where the court has mandated that it’s not necessary.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the background of the case and mention that SC has recently given its verdict in the case.

Body

  • Discuss the arguments given by the court for deciding that Aadhar is constitutional and should be used for distribution of public services. Highlight that majority favoured the scheme’s continuance for the sake of the 99.76% of people included under it, rather than fret over the 0.24% who were excluded because of authentication failure.
  • Also mention that the majority decision has also made it clear that the creation of metadata and its analysis would not be permitted. Authenticated data cannot now be stored for more than six months and several directions have been issued to enhance data protection. Another major relief is that the Aadhaar number cannot be used by private corporations and the state cannot enter into any contract with such companies for the sharing of data.
  • Discuss how the verdict of the court disallows the excesses under the Aadhar Act. Discuss why the court has struck down section 57 of the Act.

Conclusion – Give your view on whether or not the verdict is a middle path.

 


Topic – Indian polity : Issues

4) SC’s ruling on Adultery law is a triumph for gender equality. Discuss. (250 words) 

Hindustantimes

Why this question

Verdicts of supreme court on laws which affect the conscience and morality of society needs to be prepared. Section 497 of IPC has been a matter of debate over equality of sexes since long and the court verdict was on progressive lines. This issue is this important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what section 497 of IPC talks about, the verdict of the court in the case and the reasons why the verdict is an important landmark for gender equality. We need to also discuss the other side of the debate wherein we highlight that India still needs to go a long way in ensuring true equality of sexes.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what section 497 of IPC is – it deemed adultery a crime.

Body

  • Discuss how adultery is defined under the Act – The archaic law stipulated that only a married man can invoke Section 497 against another man for having a relationship with his wife. A woman with a similar grievance could not approach the court. The law also interpreted adultery as a married man’s sexual relationship with a married woman which meant that his relations with, say, a single woman was not.
  • Highlight the reasons given by the court as to why this section has been declared unconstitutional.
  • Discuss how this is good for gender equality – women no longer lived in the shadows of their husbands and are not mere objects who can be preyed upon by men who then become criminally liable if the woman’s husband has not given his consent to an adulterous relationship. Also mention that the law is archaic and is not in tune with societal realities of our times
  • Discuss why this is only a small victory and a lot more needs to be done for ensuring true gender equality

Conclusion – Give your view on the verdict and whether this is a victory for true equality among sexes.


Topic – Indian Polity: Issues

5) The draft Personal Data Protection Bill poses a danger to the hard-won right to information. Critically Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article talks about one more issue with the BN Srikrishna committee report. The current article highlights how the provisions of the draft data protection Bill are at odds with RTI Act and transparency provisions.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the pros and cons of the provisions of the draft Bill of those provisions which are against the provisions of RTI Act and transparency. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion on the provisions of the draft Bill and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a background of the data protection Bill and talk about the challenges emanating for RTI Act from all corners

Body

  • Highlight the provisions of the draft Bill which create such a conundrum
    • Provisions related to personal data and the need to amend RTI act to protect “personal data”
    • Srikrishna Committee suggests amending this clause to authorise public information officers, or PIOs, to deny information containing ‘personal data’, if they feel that such disclosure is likely to cause harm to ‘the data principal’, and if such harm outweighs public interest.
  • Highlight that such a step is necessary for protecting the privacy of data, tackles with the unnecessary demands raised under RTI Act etc
  • Highlight how such provisions are antagonistic to the ideals of transparency and accountability and would grant greater discretion and further the travails of RTI Act

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss the way forward.


Topic –  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.

6) Doubling India’s share of exports to the world is critical for India to achieve double digit growth. Discuss the challenges in achieving this target and highlight benefits of boosting exports?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article highlights the dream of the present government with respect to doubling India’s share in total exports. The article discusses the issues involved therein and explains why doubling exports is so critical for the country. There has been a lull in exports and with import bills touching sky high on account of energy imports, we need to devise new strategy.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the reasons why doubling exports is necessary, the various challenges that will come before us in trying to double our exports and the impact of having achieved this target on our economy.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you need to explain the challenges to enhancing exports for India and the impact of boosting exports for Indian economy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Talk about the goal of doubling exports as envisaged by Narendra Modi. Give data on India’s current share in the export pie.

Body – bring out the reasons why boosting exports is necessary for India. Here you should give the usual reasons which we study in basic macroeconomy. Next, we need to bring out the challenges faced in boosting exports – international competitiveness of manufacturing has not made great strides, reflected in the declining manufacturing export-GDP ratio and manufacturing trade balance; segments of exports continue to go substantially in primary form and not in a value-added mode etc. Discuss the impact of boosting exports for Indian economy.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need for such an aim and discuss the way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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