Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 AUGUST 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 AUGUST 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic-History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

1) After getting independence from the colonial powers African countries suffered from several shared problems. Discuss.(250 words)

Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe; Chapter- Problems in Africa

Why this question

African independence is an important historical narrative and it is also directly related to the syllabus. Therefore it is essential to understand the commonality of problems faced by the individual nations.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems faced by the African countries on getting independence which were shared by most of them. We have to be as descriptive and exhaustive (within word limit) as possible.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few lines about African independence from colonialism. E.g African nationalism spread rapidly after 1945 as more and more Africans became educated and aware about the racial discrimination etc. Mention the various powers that ruled the continent and also different levels of entrenchment of the white people etc.

Body-

Discuss in points the problems that were commonly faced by the newly independent African nations. E.g

  • Tribal differences.
  • Lack of economic development.
  • Political problems like lack of familiarity and experience with running democratic institutions.
  • Economic disaster in the wake of global recession of 1980s which further resulted in natural disaster due to death of livestock, famines, crop failures, starvation, death etc.

Discuss each heading in detail and give examples of some countries to frame and polish your answer.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) Article 35A is at the heart of Indian federation and any attempt to hold it otherwise will have negative consequences. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The SC is presently hearing a PIL challenging the constitutional validity of article 35A. It is a keystone article which forms the basis of the relationship between the erstwhile princely state of J&K and India. It is essential to know how a positive judgement in favour of the PIL can impact the relationship in a negative way.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and form an opinion as to whether Article 35A is at the heart of Indian federation and any attempt to hold it otherwise will have negative consequences, or not. You have to present relevant facts/ arguments and then based on your discussion we have to form an opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the history of article 35A and its association with article 370.

Article 35A was inserted into the Constitution as part of amendments made through a 1954 presidential order, imposed under Article 370.

Body-

  • Describe the article in detail. E.g Broadly, it empowers Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to not only define a class of persons as constituting “permanent residents” of the State but also allows the government to confer on these persons special rights and privileges with respect to matters of public employment, acquisition of immovable property in the State, settlement in different parts of the State, and access to scholarships or other such aids that the State government might provide. The Article further exempts such legislation from being annulled on the ground that they infringe one or the other of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution etc.
  • Discuss the facts/ arguments in support of your opinion on the issue (You are free to take the stand in favour of or against the statement but you have to properly justify yourself). E.g . The law on the subject is well settled. Previous Benches have already put their imprimatur on the 1954 presidential order; India’s Constitution, as the political scientist Louise Tillin has explained, establishes a form of asymmetric federalism, in which some States enjoy greater autonomy over governance than others. This asymmetry is typified by Article 370; with the disbanding of J&K’s Constituent Assembly in 1956, the question of suspending Article 370 was rendered moot; Article 370 is as much a part of the Constitution as Article 368. That the framers were deeply cognisant of the fact that the Constitution accorded J&K exceptional status is free of any doubt; “Kashmir’s conditions are… special and require special treatment,” ; any dilution of the provisions will have a further alienating effect on Kashmir and may fuel more violence, insurgency, economic breakdown and loss of democracy in the valley etc.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


Topic– Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges

3) If there was any real benefit in having a Legislative Council, all States in the country should, and arguably would, have a second chamber. Evaluate.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the debates surrounding the creation of Legislative Councils in states. The issue gains significance in light of the wish of Odisha to have an upper house of its own. The creation of Legislative Councils needs to be evaluated in this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the role Legislative Councils play and how useful are they for states. The question makes an assertion that if LCs were useful for states, each state would have one. Since not all states are having LCs, it indicates the limited utility of LCs. We have to give our opinion on this assertion mainly.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the constitutional provisions regarding LCs and highlight the number of states that have LCs in India.

Body

  • Discuss the role that LCs were envisaged to perform as per the founding fathers of our constitution – as a revisory house, give an opportunity to diverse section to be a part of the law making process etc
  • Highlight the status quo of functioning of Legislative councils in the states in India.
  • Mention the negatives of having an LC – Constitution Assembly itself felt this body would delay legislative process, not a representative of people directly, and an expensive institution, no real power except the power to delay legislations etc
  • Discuss the recommendations of committees like 2nd ARC and what they have suggested for improving the functioning of LCs – election of members of legislative council, role of teachers and graduates should be decreased or done away with. And more say should be given to local bodies. So that SLC can represent local bodies at state level as Rajya sabha represents states at national level. It will strengthen the root level democracy.And SLC should be strengthened as a Second chamber rather than a secondary chamber.
  • Examine whether a national policy for states to have LCs would make more sense

Conclusion – Give your view on the importance of LC for states and the way forward.


Topic– Issues related to health

4) Insurance based health schemes are unlikely to succeed unless supplemented with improvements in primary healthcare. Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

PM has announced the intention of the government to come out with a health insurance scheme that deals with the problem of rising OoPE wrt healthcare. The article discusses whether an effective health insurance scheme would alleviate the issue or whether it requires more systemic changes to be brought into the healthcare sector.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the debates wrt health insurance schemes and examine whether the problem of OoPE would be resolved by NHPM, or whether it requires more systemic changes.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the independence day speech by PM laid special emphasis on this scheme.

Body

  • Discuss the nature of NHPM or Modicare being envisioned by the government. highlight the issues that the government is trying to solve.
  • Discuss the problem of OoPE with facts and figures and link how OoPE can be reduced if such insurance schemes work. Highlight other pros of insurances schemes
  • Discuss the issues with relying on insurance without improving the basic health infrastructure of the country with special emphasis on the status of PHC.

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of health insurance schemes in dealing with OoPE and what should be the way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicEnvironmental Impact Assessment

5) There is a need to strengthen the EIA procedures and norms to make ourselves less vulnerable to the vagaries of nature. Analyze. (250 words)

Hindustantimes

Why this question

The frequency of natural disasters is on the rise not only in India but across the world. In India, however , as we have seen in the case of Kerala floods, our preparedness to deal with such natural disasters is limited because of the poor EIA norms. The article discusses the issues with EIA which is the first step in understanding how the process can be improved.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the issues with the current process of EIA, highlight the lacunae and discuss how strengthening EIA would help in making is better prepared for the disasters of the future.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what EIA is, the legal provisions related to EIA.

Body

  • Highlight the importance of EIA in making us better prepared to deal with disasters.
  • Discuss the issues with EIA process in India –  Deliberate omission of vital information, False, unreliable and doubtful data, funded by agency whose primary business is to obtain clearance, no accreditation of EIA consultancy etc
  • Discuss the instances where poor EIA has led to magnification of impact post disasters – you can quote the examples cited in the article and the court cases as well
  • Thereafter, examine the linkage between strengthening EIA process and enhancing our disaster preparedness.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of strengthening the EIA process and the way forward.


Topic Part of static series under the heading – “air masses”

6) Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer by explaining what air masses are, essential conditions for the formation of an air mass, and how an air mass differed from a mass of air. Finally, explain how air masses impact the micro-climate of a region.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that an air mass is a large body of air having uniform temperature, humidity and pressure which it adapts from the surface present below it. Discuss the essential conditions for formation of an air mass such as uniformity in meteorological conditions , ample time and plain topography which plays an assisting role.

Body – Explain how air masses impact the micro climate – creation of an occluded front, maritime air masses causing rainfall, cyclonic and anti cyclonic conditions etc. Give examples for these impacts on micro climate.


General Studies – 4


Topic-Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7) What are human values. Discuss. Also discuss some the human values having a universal relevance.(250 words)

Lexicon Ethics Book; Chapter- Ethics and Human interface.

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and significance of human values. It also wants us to write in detail about some human values that have universal relevance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about human values. E.g values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that serves as guiding principles in people’s lives. Each of us holds numerous values with varying degrees of importance. A particular value may be very important to one person, but unimportant to another.

Body

  • Discuss the common features of human values. E.g Values are beliefs are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion; Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain ; Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals which distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations; Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events i.e serve as standards or criteria; Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.
  • Discuss in points values which have a universal relevance in terms of different societies. E.g

Truth; Love-Caring; Peace; Responsibility; Justice etc.Discuss each value briefly and take the help of the book and the article attached to the question to from your answer.

Conclusionsum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 [jetpack_subscription_form]