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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 AUGUST 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

1) Critically examine whether accepting bilateral or multilateral assistance would impact India’s superpower status?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Recently the matter of taking funds from abroad has been in news. The article discusses the issue and analyzes the reasons why India is reticent in accepting funds from abroad. The issue is linked to the overall objectives of India’s foreign policy and merits discussion.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine the reasons why India is reticent in accepting funds from abroad for disaster management purposes. Thereafter, analyze whether this stand taken by the government makes sense by discussing its pros and cons. Give your view on whether accepting funds from abroad makes sense.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss why this topic is in news by mentioning the offer of RS 700 cr for flood assistance from UAE and India’s stand on it.

Body –

  • Explain that  decided not to seek external assistance for disaster relief — from foreign countries or even the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The context of that decision was India’s superpower dream. It was felt that India should demonstrate that it had the strength to withstand and counter calamities and also help its neighbours
  • Examine whether this stand makes sense – in its favour we need to discuss that taking funds from abroad would reflect poorly on India’s aspirations of becoming a permanent member of UN etc. Against it we need to point out the practical realities of rebuilding, the fiscal constraints etc

Conclusion – Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion on India’s decision of not accepting foreign aid for relief efforts and discuss the way forward.


Topic–  Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

2) Evaluate the claim that the challenge of Naxalism in this country is on its last legs?(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

The Home minister recently made this claim that the threat of Naxalism is on its last legs in India. Naxalism presents one of the most significant challenge to internal security of Indian state and India’s progress in tackling Naxalism needs to be probed in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine whether the challenge of Naxalism is on its last legs in India. We need to discuss the strategy of tackling Naxalism in the country, the effectiveness of that strategy, the challenges faced still and the way forward.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the problem of Naxalism in the country and mention that it has posed one of the most significant internal security challenge for the Indian state. Highlight the recent comment made by the Home Minister with regards to Naxalism.

Body

  • Discuss the strategy employed by Indian state – government of India’s National Policy and Action Plan, with its emphasis on security and development, is definitely making an impact, Winning Hearts and Minds etc
  • Discuss the impact of these strategies employed – highlight the recent advances made, developmental projects undertaken in red zone areas etc
  • Discuss why this is a problem which might have subsided but is likely to rear its ugly head – perceived historical wrongs, the lack of presence of state infrastructure in certain districts etc
  • Suggest the way forward for ensuring that the gains made in tackling Naxalism is sustained – whether we should extend an olive branch from a position of strength or whether we need to crush the naxal movement when their chips are down

Conclusion – Give your view on the status of naxal challenge and the way forward for dealing with this challenge.


Topic –  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Discuss how The Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy patients.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

A plethora of laws exist in the Indian legal framework, which discriminate against leprosy patients. Advances in medicine and science have led to demystifying various medical, social as well as religious misconceptions about the disease. Under these circumstances it is imperative to discuss the legislation which intends to remove  the discriminations against leprosy patients.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the salient provisions of the Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, and write in detail as to how it seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy persons.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the nature of leprosy disease. E.g It is an infectious but very less contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae etc. Mention that India has the world’s largest no. of leprosy patients and also runs the world’s largest anti-leprosy programme- National Leprosy Eradication Program.

Body-

DIscuss how the   Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy persons.

E.g it seeks to amend five Acts.  These are: (i) the Divorce Act, 1869, (ii) the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939, (iii) the Special Marriage Act, 1954, (iv) the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and (v) the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956.  The Bill eliminates leprosy as a ground for dissolution of marriage or divorce. The condition under Section 18 (2) (c) of the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, that a Hindu wife is entitled to live separately from her husband without forfeiting her claim to maintenance if the latter is “suffering from a virulent form of leprosy”, has been omitted. The amendments introduced in the Bill omit the provisions which stigmatise and discriminate against leprosy-affected persons and provide for the integration of leprosy patients into the mainstream etc.

Mention that the provisions of the bill are in line with UN General Assembly Resolution of 2010 on the ‘Elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members’ that it was introduced. India has signed and ratified the Resolution.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) Excellence  is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions. Comment, in the light of the recent government policy to create “institutes of eminence” in the country.(250 words)

Indian express

hindubuisnessline

Why this question

The centre has in the recent past, accorded the status of institutes of eminence to six institutes in India. The concept is aimed at improving the quality of higher education in India and specifically improve the ranking of Indian institutes at global level. It is therefore important to discuss the efficacy and potential of this policy.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express or opinion as to why  Excellence is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions. We can also object to the opinion. Whatever our opinion, we have to back it with sufficient and proper arguments/ facts/ examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the institutes of eminence concept- the reason for their making, facilities available to them etc.

Body-

Discuss why excellence  is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions.

E.g The terms of references under which the Empowered Committee was tasked to identify universities were not made public. The process of selecting the empowering universities was arbitrary;  The attention should have been on empowering existing brown-field universities, rather than recognising non-existing universities as contenders; Institution building is about a deeper recognition of what it takes to build a culture of excellence. Lived experiences of individuals matter more in universities than in any other organisation; Even if there was a vision to recognise green-field institutions, there should have been a separate criteria and process to evaluate them. At a policy level, identical treatment of existing and green-field institutions was unfair and a grave mistake; the key characteristics that are vital to any world-class university were missing from the exercise of selecting institutions. This includes, for instance, internationalisation of faculty, research, students, courses and outlook. Moreover, the selection process should have had a holistic approach to disciplines. By giving pre-eminence to the sciences and engineering, we have completely neglected the humanities and social sciences etc

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


General Studies – 3


TopicLinkages between development and spread of extremism.

5) In the face of a downgrade in the Maoist movement, it is vital for India to adopt a conciliatory approach and carry out sincere measures to redress grievances. Critically examine. (250 words)

Indian express

Reference

Why this question

Maoist movement has been at its ebb in the recent years and is downgrade can be conspicuously felt. Under these circumstances it is imperative to discuss as to what should be the response of the govt and what policy it should follow.

Directive word

Critically Examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. Based on our discussion we have to form a  personal opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the present status of maoism in India and then deliberate upon the need to adopt a conciliatory approach in dealing with maoism. We have to discuss both the sides of adopting such an approach and then form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the history and phases of maoist movement in India. Mention the present situation when the movement has been virtually uprooted from large swathes of affected areas.

Body-

  • Discuss why there is a need for a conciliatory approach. E.g mention the relationship between development and extremism. Discuss how fruits of development have not reached the naxal affected areas; discuss the propensity for reinvigoration of the movement in the face of an aggressive approach by the government; discuss the need to enhance the pace of development in such areas, providing gram sabhas with effective powers etc.
  • Discuss the risks involved and precautions to be adopted while maintaining a conciliatory approach. E.g there is risk that a conciliatory approach may provide time for rebuilding the movement etc; need to improve people’s confidence and involve them in the development agenda etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. Your conclusion should be substantive and presented in the form of a way forward- e.g initiate a peace process on the lines of the Colombia deal etc.

 


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “winds”

6) Explain local winds and how they impact the weather condition of a region ?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what local winds are, how they originate and the role that they play in impacting the local climatic conditions of the region.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what local winds are and how they originate. mention that local winds occur on a small scale over relatively small period of time and are controlled by local conditional factors. Explain the reasons why they are generated such as – topographical discontinuity, differential heating of Earth’s surface,  and caused due to cyclones, anticyclones etc

Body – Discuss the impact that local winds have on the climate of a region such as the effect caused by sea breeze and land breeze, sudden temperature changes caused in deserts due to local winds, help in melting ice such as Chinook, mention winds like Harmattan which results in decreased humidity etc


General Studies – 4


TopicEthics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) All ethical theories and concepts have their own strengths as well as limitations. Discuss in the context of deontological ethics. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the strengths as well as limitations of deontological ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about deontological ethics- its approach and key proponents.

Body

  • Discuss in points, the strengths of the deontological ethics.e.g emphasises the value of every human being; provides ‘certainty’ of behaviour/ action; deals with intentions and motives; Kantian duty-based ethics says that some things should never be done, no matter what good consequences they produce. This seems to reflect the way some human beings think; Rossian duty-based ethics modified this to allow various duties to be balanced, which, it could be argued, is an even better fit to the way we think etc.
  • Discuss in points the limitations of the deontological ethics. E.g Duty-based ethics sets absolute rules. The only way of dealing with cases that don’t seem to fit is to build a list of exceptions to the rule; allows acts that make the world a less good place because duty-based ethics is not interested in the results it can lead to courses of action that produce a reduction in the overall happiness of the world; Duty-based ethics doesn’t deal well with the cases where duties are in conflict.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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