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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 AUGUST 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) The recent incidents of rampant physical and sexual abuse of minors and women in childcare institutions (CCIs) and shelter homes in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh reveal how the state as well as the civil society have failed in their role as protectors and watchdogs. Comment. (250 words)

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Vikaspedia

Why this question

The recent news about physical and sexual abuse of the children in CCIs has taken everybody by surprise and shock. These institutions meant to protect such children instead of providing care and protection have become the dens of criminal activity and exploitation. It is important to know why these institutions along with other similar provisions for child protection have failed to deliver the results.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding as to why the state as well as the society has failed to play their role of protector and watchdogs of the children especially those which are living in various CCIs across the country. We have to substantiate our opinion with proper and valid arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the protection guaranteed to the children under the constitution and the law- e.g Article 21, Right to Education and National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), POCSO act etc. Mention the recent controversy regarding CCIs.

Body

  • Discuss the lapses in the regulation and functioning of CCIs which led to the unrestrained physical and sexual abuse of the children in these CCIs. e.g -All CCIs are required to be registered under the JJ Act and every district needs to have a child protection officer, a child welfare committee, and a juvenile justice board. However, in practice, their functioning has not been effective enough to prevent the widespread misuse of power and money by those running these institutions. An NCPCR survey has shown that only 32% of CCIs were registered under the JJ Act, while 33% were not registered with any authority. The Ministry of Women and Child Development, which provides funding to CCIs under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, is duty-bound to carry out social audits in order to deter malpractices. However, either these institutions are allowed to function without any routine inspections, or inspections by multiple state agencies over the years find nothing amiss despite widespread abuse being present. While taking punitive action is necessary, often the government’s actions stop at just that, with any effort at alleviating the situation of these children and women and keeping checks on the functioning of shelter homes falling by the wayside once the furore over the issue dies down. etc.
  • Discuss how the society has failed to protect those children. E.g by giving up their responsibility towards the underprivileged children, not creating enough public pressure to force the institutions and the state to ameliorate the situation of such children, a patriarchal mindset of the society which leads to not taking such children into confidence while formulating laws and devising mechanisms for their protection etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

2) Analyze some of the significant changes in India’s polity witnessed in recent years, which characterise the nature of democracy in today’s  India.(250 words) 

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Why this question

The question seeks to analyze India’s nature of democracy as it stands today. Thus it is an important question in itself as well as for the UPSC exam.

Directive word

Here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the nature of Indian democracy in the present and link it with some significant political changes witnessed in the past few years. Here we have to remain least biased and bring out the objective aspects of the changes and the nature.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the foundation of Indian democracy and its evolution since independence.

Body

  • Discuss the recent significant changes witnessed in Indian polity in recent years.E.g a strong mandate at centre after a long period; NOTA option in EVMS; RTI act; caste inclusion and rising role of business persons in India’s polity etc..
  • Discuss how each of them brings out the character of Indian democracy- India’s democracy has long coexisted with several authoritarian strains, albeit in ways that have shifted in balance across time. These, among others, include a hierarchical style of leadership based on cults of personality, heredity among the ruling class, limits on dissent, and the militarisation of everyday life etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


TopicConservation, environmental degradation

3) Various committees have been formed to give recommendations on preservation of Western Ghats, but not a lot has happened on that front. Examine. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The recent Kerala floods have brought the attention on Gadgil committee recommendation on Western Ghats and reveals the frailness of the Ghats. The non implementation of Gadgil committee report has been touted as one of the reason why Kerala floods were this severe. Thus the committees formed for the preservation of Western Ghats in particular and Western Ghats in general has become important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the recommendations of Gadgil committee, Kasturiranjan Committee and Oommen v Oommen Committee and how the recommendations of the three committees varied from each other, along with the impact that the non implementation of the recommendations have had.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the ecological criticality of Western Ghats and the details of the 3 committees mentioned above.

Body

  • Discuss the key recommendations of the 3 committees
  • Gadgil – classifying entire western ghats into 3 ecologically sensitive zones and imposing the strictest environmental standards in ESZ 1
  • Kasturiranjan – 37% of western ghats to be classified as ecologically sensitive area , but a wider definition of Western Ghats
  • Oommen v Oommen – make changes in environmentally fragile land in western ghats, made several pro farmer recommendations etc
  • Give the status of these reports and the criticism of these reports which led to these reports not being implemented
  • Discuss the fact that Kerala rejected the Gadgil committee report and the impact it has had on Kerala.

Conclusion – in light of extreme climate events, discuss the need for greater protection being accorded to ecologically sensitive areas like Western Ghats and the way forward.

 


TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) It is high time for both the RBI and the government to make a choice between legislative mandates of inflation rate targeting and a holistic approach for development management. Critically Comment.(250 words)

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Livemint

Why this question

A strict Inflation targeting approach of the RBI, as mandated, has been criticized for various reasons with restricting development opportunities being the most important of them. The RBI has recently been increasing repo rate as well as reverse repo rates under inflationary expectations. It is necessary to revisit the issue and have a short discussion thereupon.

Directive word

Critically Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. Here we have to look at both negative as well as positive aspects and then form our opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss the positive as well as negative aspects of inflation targeting and how it affects development of the country. Based on our discussion we have to form a substantive conclusion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the mandate of RBI to restrict inflation to 4 +/- 2%. Also mention RBI’s recent monetary policy changes like hike in repo and reverse repo rates.

Body-

  • Discuss the positive aspects of such a targeting approach on development.  E.g fosters stable macroeconomic conditions; stable inflation rates and expectations- linked to such domestic and business decisions; generates high investment confidence etc.
  • DIscuss the negative aspects. E.g restricts development opportunities, inadequate allocation of public funds for social sectors; propagates social inequality; is insufficient as a measure because of strong association of inflation in India with the supply side etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion form a conclusion as to what should be done in this regard. Your opinion should be supported by further arguments in case needed.

 


Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) The recent  report by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), reiterate the vulnerability of Indian agriculture households. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Agriculture is the livelihood of around 48% of Indian population. It is extremely essential to discuss about the vulnerabilities of Indian agriculture households and how they have progressed with time. Besides, launched in 2016-17, NAFIS is a national level survey that offers a comprehensive overview of the rural population in terms of their status of livelihoods and level of financial inclusion. It was conducted in more than 40,000 households from 245 districts in 29 states. Its findings are important.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the findings of the recent report by NABARD which highlights the vulnerabilities of Indian agriculture households. We also have to discuss the findings of some other report which reiterates such findings.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the importance of agriculture for the vast majority of Indian farming households, as a source of subsistence and livelihood. Mention agriculture’s contribution to national GDP.

Body

  • Discuss the findings of the report of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), released in 2014, which gives a detailed picture of the vulnerability of Indian agricultural households. E.g 52 per cent of the total agricultural households in the country are in debt; If you adjust for inflation, farmers’ incomes have remained frozen in the past 10 years; the debt is being incurred by the the richer, more prosperous farmers etc.
  • Discuss the findings of the recent NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) report. E.g Apart from a paltry income, farmers are facing rising indebtedness, lesser financial inclusion, and absence of insurance facility, in the past four years, the income of a farm household has increased by just Rs 2,505/month; 41 per cent of rural households are indebted, of which majority (43 per cent) are agriculture households; Around one-third of total households take loan from money lenders and other non-financial institutions.  Although around 60 per cent of households take loans from financial institutions, the average amount of loan from non-institution is more than double than any financial institution etc.

Conclusion sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 


Topic – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6) Addressing undernutrition challenge should be taken up on mission mode by the government. Discuss. Also suggest ways to address this challenge. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article contains very important statistics on status of malnutrition in India and strategies to deal with it. This topic is quite important while discussing inclusive growth in India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the status quo of undernutrition among children, women and other vulnerable sections of the society. Through such data and other constitutional and social imperatives, we need to establish the need of tackling this problem on mission mode. In the final part of the answer, we need to discuss the steps that need to be taken to address this significant challenge facing the Indian state.

Directive word

Discussion – In your discussion, you need to establish the need of tackling the problem of undernutrition on an urgent basis and give suggestions for tackling this issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that India has been taking several measures to improve the status of nutrition and how the definition of nutrition has changed over the years with focus on micronutrients.

Body

  • Use the statistics mentioned in the article to explain that India’s status quo wrt undernutrition is quite alarming. Discuss that it the moral obligation of government to implement directive policies which explicitly states that undernutrition needs to be challenged. Also highlight the international obligations on India which should compel it to tackle this challenge on an urgent basis.
  • Highlight that the problem plagues women, children and other vulnConclrable section
  • Discuss why tackling undernutrition should be a key focus area of the government. Highlight points such as building human capital, reaping demographic dividend etc
  • Discuss the steps that need to be taken to address this challenge – the steps suggested by NITI Ayog etc

Conclusion – Summarize your answer while emphasizing the need of tackling this challenge and how we can do it.


Topic Part of static series under the heading – “Weathering and erosion , landforms of agents of weathering”

7) Explain the various landforms created by highland glaciation? (250 words)

NCERT Class XI Physical Geography ch 6, pg 48

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the landforms created by erosion and deposition as a result of highland glaciation. In our explanation, we need to mention how such landforms are formed and the features of such landforms

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that glaciation gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features in the lowlands. Mention that glacier plays a combined role of erosion, deposition and transportation throughout its course.

Body – Explain erosional features in the highland like Corrie, pyramidal peaks, glacial trough, hanging valleys, rock basins, moraines etc.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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