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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 AUGUST 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


TopicHistory of the world  including events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

1) Fall of the communism in Eastern Europe led to surfacing of  a new range of problems in the world. Discuss.(250 words)

Mastering World History,by Norman Lowe.

Why this question

Fall of communism was one of the most important moments in the history of the modern world. Although it brought the much needed democracy to the earlier communist countries but it came with its own set of problems. It is essential to know its impact in terms of what new problems surfaced because of it.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about what were the problems that arose out of the fall of communism in Europe.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention that between 1988 to 1991 a number of remarkable events ultimately led to the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the face of rising popular opposition and mass demonstrations etc. Mention that it brought the much needed end to cold-war rivalry and brought economic independence and democracy to the erstwhile communist states but it also led to surfacing of several problems.

Body-

Discuss in points, the problems that surfaced due to fall of communism in Eastern Europe.

E.g New conflicts soon arose like the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan, war in Georgia and split of Yugoslavia into five nation states; in the absence of Russia and US acting as policemen,the threat of rogue or unstable or dangerous nations acquiring nuclear, chemical or biological weapons grew significantly; the problem of economic reconstruction of the Eastern Europe which in itself brought several problems like Right-wing backlash against aid from the West, selling of nuclear weapons by Russia etc; unification of Germany leading to huge refugee influx and growing uneasiness of Poland etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic–  Part of static series under the heading – “ Earth – Formation”

2) Discuss the various theories of formation of Earth? Examine how Juno mission will keep us understand the formation of Earth?(250 words)

NCERT CLASS 11 Physical Geography pg 14

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the various theories of formation of Earth and examine how would the Juno mission help us in understanding the formation of Earth.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. Explain the purpose of Juno Mission and discuss how it would be useful in understanding about formation of Earth.


General Studies – 3


Topic-  Indian Economy: Issues

3) Discuss the implementation hurdles faced by MSMEs with respect to GST? Examine the recent steps taken by GSTN in this regard?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

MSME sector is a focus area for the government, considering the potential this sector has for the benefit of Indian economy. GST is a landmark tax reform and has had a disruptive effect on many sectors including MSME sector. However, many argue that MSME sector have in fact started reaping benefits on account of GST, with much more benefits over a longer time. This question expects you to discuss such issues in detail.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the issues faced and also discuss whether any advantage has accrued to MSME sector on account of GST. Thereafter, it expects us to explain the initiatives proposed by GSTN to address the issues faced by MSME sector and the impact it would have.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that MSME sector is of special significance for the Indian government, expecting it to offer higher employment opportunities by 2020. The sector forms a key component of the government’s ‘Make in India’ and ‘Skill India’ programme.

Body – Discuss the issues faced by MSME sector with GST – acclimatization issue, problems in getting ITC, infrastructural glitches etc. Explore whether GST has had certain advantageous impact on MSMEs. Give your opinion on the full potential of GST for businesses such as – expand consumer base, take advantage of schemes like composition tax payer etc. Thereafter, highlight the steps suggested by GSTN  and its overall impact.

Conclusion – Discuss the overall impact of GST on MSME and suggest way forward.


TopicInclusive growth and issues arising from it.

4) Bridging the gender gap in mobile ownership and digital literacy in India will hasten women empowerment and help transform their lives. Comment.(250 words)

Livemint

Livemint

Why this question

Women empowerment is a critical goal to be achieved, more so especially for a country placed like India. It has been observed that improving mobile ownership and digital literacy in women pays huge dividends in a multitude of ways, thereby empowering them economically as well as socially. Thus it is important to discuss the scope of such an intervention.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on whether bridging the gender gap in mobile ownership and digital literacy in India will hasten women empowerment and help transform their lives.  We have present our opinion based on our arguments, which form a part of our knowledge and understanding of the issue as expressed in our answer.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines depicting the grim situation of digital gender divide in India- e.g The world today has 3.58 billion internet users. Roughly 2 billion (56%) are men and 1.57 billion (44%) are women. Of that shortfall of 430 million users, 42% comes from India. India accounts for nearly half the digital gender gap worldwide, even though we account for 12% of the internet total population etc.

Body-

Discuss the benefits that bridging the gender gap in mobile ownership and digital literacy in India, will have on women empowerment and their life in general. E.g Use of mobile based cash transfers linked to various govt schemes and welfare programs thereby economically empowering women and increase their role in decision-making in the family; by dismantling hostile norms surrounding gender- quote the study on mobile phone ownership and usage by women in India, using 2004-2005 National Family Health Survey; economic empowerment by triggering occupational and workforce changes and mention how women can be socially empowered by providing advisory services, legal and consultancy services on mobile phones etc; give the examples of m-PESA project of Kenya etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue in the form of a way forward- like giving subsidy in buying mobile phones to women; integrating the issue in Digital India programme etc.


Topic – Land reforms in India

5) Discuss the of land reforms carried out in India since independence? Do you think digitisation of land record is the most crucial land reform that can be undertaken in the present age?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Land Reform is a topic in GS3 which comprises mostly of understanding the nature of land reforms carried out so far. The article explain why focus must shift to the unfinished agenda of land reforms which is digitisation of land records.

Directive word

Discuss – The various land reform initiatives undertaken by the government since independence has to be explained in brief – the aims they were trying to achieve, the result, the impact etc.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain in brief the diverse nature of land reforms undertaken in our country. Your answer should cover the aims they were trying to achieve, the result, the impact etc. Thereafter, move on to establishing the need for a digitisation drive for land records, and ways we can go about it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the overall need for land reforms in a country like India. Discuss whether the issue of land reform is still relevant, so many years after independence.

Body – Explain the various land reform measure undertaken by government since independence in brief. Emphasize that digitisation of land reforms despite multiple efforts by government through programmes like DILRMP 2008 etc have been, but breakthrough has been elusive. Explain why digitisation of land record is required. Mention the steps taken by government like Andhra Pradesh towards this end, as well as the opportunity provided by blockchain technology.

Conclusion – Examine whether digitisation of land record would help in resolving the issues related to land reforms and suggest way forward.


Topic – Infrastructure: Railways

6) Indian Railways has often been called out for its lack of modernization. Consequently, modernization of Indian Railways is a priority area for the government. Discuss the roadmap for modernization and examine issues as highlighted by CAG?(250 words)

The hindu

pib

Why this question

CAG observation on modernization of railways had brought the focus back on this key priority area of government as highlighted in the Budget. This means that we need to prepare notes on the plan for modernization and the issues in implementation to tackle questions of this nature.

Directive word

Discuss – The modernization plan has to be explained, the issues involved to be brought out along with way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight why modernization of railways is a priority.

Body – Discuss the plan for modernization – explain the focus areas  and the reasons why it is a focus area, discuss steps such as modernization of coaches, increase in speed, better facilities as well as amenities etc. Discuss the observations made by CAG – that the focus of CAG is mainly on improving the facade and passenger facilities, rather that removing bottlenecks to ensure timely movement of trains. Bring out the other areas where CAG has suggested an improvement.

Conclusion – Examine whether CAG report on modernization of railways, if paid heed to, would help in improving the status of Indian railways. Give way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic-  Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity.

7) There is a need to move from the traditional hierarchical exercise of power by the government to the new notion of a “dispersed and relational power in governance. In the light of the above statement, discuss the difference between governance and government. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Governance and the government are two interrelated concepts but have a significant difference between the two, which needs to be discussed upon.

Directive word

Discuss-This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the difference between government and governance and discuss why governance based systems are better than government based systems.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- define and write a few lines about the term governance. E.g The word “governance” came from the Latin verb “gubernare,” or more originally from the Greek word “kubernaein,” which means “to steer.” Basing on its etymology, governance refers to the manner of steering or governing, or of directing and controlling, a group of people or a state.

Body-

Differentiate between government and governance and bring out e\why the later is better than the former. E.g the meaning of governance  includes, not just government actors, but also civil-society actors.Today, governance includes three sectors: the public sector (state actors and institutions), the private sector (households and companies), and the civil society (non-governmental organizations). These three sectors are said to work hand in hand in the process of governance. This new use of the term focuses on the role of “networks” in the achievement of the common good, whether these networks are intergovernmental, transnational, or international. ;  government is associated with “control and domination,” and governance with “decentralization and relational management.” On the one hand, government refers to a central institution which wields power over its subjects. It is the instrument patterned after the model of “command and control,” the government being in command over the affairs of the people. On the other hand, governance is closely associated with the concept of decentralization of power and the need for inter-sectoral management. Governance is based on the realization that the government cannot do everything for the people, so that in order to survive the state should not only rely on government but also on the other sectors of the society etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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