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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 02 AUGUST 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 02 AUGUST 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian society

1) A normative shift has taken place in the idea of reservation from how it was envisaged by the constitution as a tool of social justice. Critically comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

In recent years, the number of protests by communities for getting reservation has seen a marked upswing. Various scholars have commented on the changed nature of reservation and the present article wonderfully explains how reservation has changed in nature, form, objectives etc from how it was envisaged by our constitution. This being an important and recurring topic in mains needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to present our view on whether the idea of reservation has taken a paradigm shift from the idea envisaged by our constitution – as a tool of social justice, temporary, and provided to socially and educationally backward. Also it expects us to compare the current idea vis a vis the ideas espoused by Indra Sawhney judgment which was critical in evolution of the constitutional debates surrounding reservation. Our view on this is to be provided in our answer

Directive word

Critically comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Critically comment is also forming opinion on main points but in the end you have to provide a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention in brief about the various incidents where protests have been carried out demanding reservations by communities like Jats, Marathas etc.

Body

  • Explain the constitutional provisions regarding reservation, the idea behind it, the fact that it was meant as a temporary measure to correct the social injustices faced by socially and economically backward communities
  • Explain how the concept has evolved over time courtesy the Mandal commission, Indra Sawhney judgment etc
  • Examine the reality in present day as discussed in the article and also highlighted by scholars like Christophe Jeffrelot who hold that the demand for reservation is mostly related to economic grievances. Discuss other changes as highlighted in the article
  • Give your view on the idea of reservation and its practice in current day based on your reading

Conclusion – Briefly discuss what should be the way forward.


Topic– Events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Critically analyze the significance of the Vienna Congress in changing the course of the European history.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Vienna Congress has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs. However, others praise it for having created relatively long-term stability and peaceful conditions in most of the Europe. It is therefore vital to delve into the issue and have a discussion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the positive as well as the negative aspects of the Vienna Congress and based on our discussion, form an opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Critically Analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and identify and discuss about all the related and important aspects and correlate them to satisfy the key demand of the question. We have then to form an opinion on the given issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write a few lines about the background of the Vienna Congress, who were the participants, for how long was the congress held.

Body-

  • Briefly discuss the aims of the congress. E.g to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace etc.
  • Discuss the limitations/ negative aspects of the congress. E.g The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution; the “four” still intended to reserve the real decision making for themselves; no proper procedure followed etc.
  • Discuss the positive impact it had on European history. E.g prevented another widespread European war for nearly 100 years (1815–1914); deliberate conflict management, and was the first genuine attempt to create an international order based upon consensus rather than conflict;  an unprecedented degree of international cooperation; etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country

3) The draft National Register of Citizens has its roots in post independence history of Assam which partially explains the support for it. Its updation however, will open a Pandora’s box of issues. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question

A new version of draft NRC has come out which has dominated news headlines the past few days. The background of NRC, the procedural aspect of it, the impact are some of the issues that needs to be prepared for mains and this question covers part of it.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what NRC is and a peek into history that led to the demand of NRC. Thereafter, we need to examine the impact of it. The pros and cons of NRC needs to be brought out. We need to highlight the ethical, political, societal, security impact of NRC.  Finally, a way forward needs to be provided.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Briefly explain why NRC is in news and what it actually is.

Body

  • Mention about the NRC of 1951, mass immigration from Bangladesh in 1971, protest by AASU in 1980s, Assam Accord and the final decision taken in 2005.
  • Examine the issues and challenges that have arisen as a result of this exercise. Discuss the ethical issue of uprooting family etc, political issues including the impact on IR, societal issues such as the wider demand in North East, security issue which forms one of the backbone of the demand, administrative issues arising in such a massive exercise etc
  • Examine how can we deal with these issues going forward

Conclusion – emphasize on the magnitude of challenges that will arise in the coming days and how to deal with them.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate

4) Discuss the principles of functioning and, various institutional and financial  arrangements of the SAARC.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

SAARC is an important regional organisation with India the largest and an important member. It is essential to know how the organisation functions and what are the governing principles.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply write in detail about the principles governing the functioning of SAARC. It then wants us to write in detail about the instruments through which the organisation functions.

Directive word

Discuss- Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about SAARC, its members , year of founding and key objectives.

Body

  • Discuss the principles governing its functioning. E.g cooperation  based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States and mutual benefit; not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them; not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.
  • Discuss the instruments of functioning. E.g Council of ministers; Technical Committee; Advisory Committee etc. Discuss the functions of each of them.

Conclusion- write a few lines about the scope of SAARC for regional as well as national development.

 


 

Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “ Need for a review of the Constitution”

5) It is often said that constitution is a living document. What do you understand by it. Examine whether there is a need to review the constitution in light of a lack of consensus and changed requirements with respect to certain key provisions?(250 words)

The hindu

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reason behind calling Indian constitution a living document. Thereafter, we need to discuss certain key areas such as debates over secularism, changes reqd in DPSP in light of changed socio economic realities. We need to examine whether in light of necessities such as those highlighted above, we need a review of constitution.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by calling constitution a living document – can be changed according to the requirement and the needs of the present society and its future, it is not a constant and static document rather it is fluid and it can be changed by the process of amendment.

Body – Examine what are the niggling factors in our polity and society, in light of which there might be a need to review the constitution. Discuss the changed socio economic realities of india and whether there is a need to review DPSP. Discuss whether foreign policy can be brought under the ambit of Parliament. Examine the impact of technology and the need for review in that regard.

Conclusion – Mention that over time, as need arose, we have amended the constitution. A periodic review, however, makes sense.


General Studies – 3


Topic-  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6) Rural tourism provides many opportunities for rural development in India, but at the same times poses several challenges which need to be taken care of. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Rural development is a necessity for India and any strategy/ policy in this direction s a welcome step. There is a lot of scope of rural tourism, given the vast rural hinterland of India and growing connectivity between urban and rural centres. Although it provides various opportunities for rural development it also faces several challenges, which need to be discussed.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on whether there are significant opportunities in exploring rural tourism as a means to rural development in India. It also wants us to discuss the challenges associated therein and then form an overall opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the vast rural hinterland with diverse geography, culture, history and mention that this provides great opportunity for rural tourism in India.

Body-

  • Discuss the opportunities in rural tourism and also discuss what benefits it could provide. E.g Desire for escape from the monoculture of city living.  Increasing Interest in Outdoor Recreation, Eco-Tourism and Special Interest Tourism. Rural locations are ideal for relaxation and rejuvenation. Over-familiarity and Congestion with traditional tourist resorts  Increased Interest in alternative and off-beat attractions Curiosity for rural India and its culture, customs and heritages Accessibility of Rural Areas. Growing number of special interest tourists etc.
  • Discuss the challenges involved therein. E.g Deprivation, Improper Communication Facilities and Embryonic Stage of Rural Market; Communication Skill; Insufficient Financial Support; lack of trained human resources; lack of proper physical connectivity etc.

Conclusion– mention the govt initiatives in this direction e.g Swadesh Darshan, PRASAD, and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the issue.


General Studies – 4


TopicContributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss the M.N roy’s philosophy of new humanism.(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply write in detail about the philosophy of new humanism propounded by the twentieth century Indian freedom fighter and philosopher, MN Roy.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about MN Roy, his life and important contributions.

Body

Discuss his philosophy of new humanism in detail and bring out its salient aspects and discuss them in detail. E.g the central idea of the Twenty-Two Theses is that political philosophy must start from the basic idea that the individual is prior to society, and freedom can be enjoyed only by individuals; Quest for freedom and search for truth, according to Roy, constitute the basic urge of human progress. The purpose of all-rational human endeavor, individual as well as collective, is attainment of freedom in ever-increasing measure. The amount of freedom available to the individuals is the measure of social progress etc. Take the help of the article attached to the question and any other relevant material to frame your answer.

Conclusion-sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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