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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 JULY 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1)The narrative of slavery in India has changed to complement the changing needs of industries. Comment. (250 words)

Reference

Indiatimes

Reference

Why this question

Recently WalkFree Foundation released its Global Slavery Index which highlights the problem of modern slavery in India. Although outlawed, slavery in its various form still exists in Indian society. It is essential to understand the issue well and there is a dire need to end the practice in pursuance of the guarantee of the fundamental rights for all.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding on  the issue of modern slavery in India and discuss how the changing needs of the industries are leading to slavery in India. We have to form an opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about India’s performance as per Global Slavery Index. Also mention that although the methodology used in the survey is not free from controversies, India still has a large population suffering under modern slavery.

Body-

  • Mention the Bonded Labour or ‘bandhua mazdoor’ which was historically associated with rural economies where peasants from economically disadvantaged communities were bound to work for the landlords. Discuss the socioeconomic aspects of this form of slavery. E.g debt-slavery relationship; hereditary; exploitative; anathema to human rights and democratic ideals etc.
  • Discuss the modern slavery in India and which industries it is associated with. E.g industries such as brick kilns, stone quarries, coal mining, agricultural labour, domestic servitude, circus and sexual slavery;Children are also widely exploited under this inhuman system particularly in small scale industries such as firecracker units, match making units, textiles, leather goods manufacturing etc.
  • Discuss the constitutional, legal provisions. E.g article 23; Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976  to be read in compliance with other relevant labour laws such as Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979; the Minimum Wages Act, 1948. Mention the SC judgements.

Conclusion-Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

2) While India has made some strides in its fight against AIDS, it still has to get several things right. Discuss(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article talks about the strides made by India in reducing the incidents of AIDS and associated social stigma, as highlighted by the UN Report. We need to thus prepare in brief on the NACP and other measures which helped us achieve these results and discuss the way forward. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reasons why India has been able to achieve positive results in the fight against AIDS and also highlight the challenges that we are yet to overcome. We need to provide the way forward as well.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the findings of the UNAIDS report and mention what the report says about India.

Body

  • Give a brief account of the steps taken by the government in fight against AIDS – NACP, role of NACO, the HIV and AIDS Bill which prohibits discrimination amongst others etc
  • Discuss the impact of these steps and where we have lacked in implementing these steps – shortage of medicines in NACP etc
  • Discuss the lacunae still – legal challenges such as Section 377, public perceptions, medicinal availabilities etc

Conclusion – Give your view on how far India has come in its fight against AIDS and what more needs to be done.

 


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Finance commission and its functions”

3) What are the important functions of Finance Commission? Do you think Finance Commission is functioning as an arbitrator between the Union and State governments? Critically examine.(250 words) 

 

Key demand of the question

The first part is fairly straightforward in its demand. In the second part of your answer, the role of FC has to be evaluated from the point of view of fiscal federalism and the grievances of the state needs to be examined. A fair and balanced view on the role of FC in upholding the principles of fiscal federalism is required to be mentioned in the conclusion.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Describe in brief about Finance commission including the relevant constitutional provisions.

Body

  • Discuss the important functions of FC
  • Explain how Finance Commission plays the role of an arbiter between central and state governments due to its role in arrival of an appropriate method for the devolution of the resources between them, and also helps in addressing the aspect of grants-in-aid of revenue, in the case of revenue shortfall for the states
  • Explain that with the abolition of Planning Commission, the role of finance commission as an arbiter has increased even more
  • Highlight the grievances of the states – issues raised in the ToR of 15th FC etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on whether the role of FC be revisited in light of abolition of PC in light of principles of fiscal federalism.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4) Discuss the need for amendment to Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act, 2008 and examine how beneficial the amended Bill would be in facilitating construction and management of new airports?(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses amendments made to AERA Act which is significant in management of new airports and role of AERA, particularly in light of the Aviation Policy. Discussing the impact of this amendment is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to answer the following points

  • Details of AERA Act 2008
  • Need for amendment to the Act
  • The nature of amendments carried out
  • Discuss the impact of the amendments

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that India has emerged as the third largest domestic aviation market in the world and Increasing passenger load demands for better regulatory structures and hence rejigging the AERA is needed.

Body

  • Explain what is AERA
  • Explain the need for amendments – discuss points like increased workload, new dynamics for engaging private players in projects etc
  • Discuss the provisions of the Amendment Bill
  • Examine whether the proposed amendments would help in bringing the desired changes – relate it to the stated objective of increasing air traffic , construction of more airports as per the Aviation policy, how role of market has to be integrated in light of the policy objectives and thus establishing the need for amendments to AERA Act

Conclusion – Mention that in light of recent objectives, the amendments make sense and discuss potential challenges which needs to be overcome.

 


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5) Critically analyze the benefits and risks associated with GM foods. Also discuss the regulatory setup in India dealing with GM foods.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

The hindu

Why this question

In a recent investigation, it was found that a number of GM foods are being sold in India despite regulatory prohibitions. It is vital to know the risks associated with GM foods and to analyze the associated regulatory setup in India.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the risks and benefits associated with production and consumption of GM foods. It also wants us to write in detail about the regulatory setup in India dealing with the GM foods.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the GM foods, their meaning, usage across the world and mention that they are currently banned in India etc.

Body-

  • Discuss in points about the benefits of GM foods. E.g higher productivity especially under the scenario of global climate change, population growth, shrinking land resources and environmental degradation; in fight against hunger and hidden hunger- biofortification etc.
  • Discuss  the health and other (economic risks) associated with GM crops especially in the context of India. E.g loss of biodiversity; carcinogenic; toxicity; allergic reactions; increased role of multinationals in agriculture which is linked to livelihood of half the Indian population etc.
  • Discuss the associated regulatory setup in India. E.g EP Act; FSS Act; Legal Metrology ( Packaged Commodities rules) ; Foreign Trade (Development and regulation act) etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion form a balanced opinion on the issue and suggest how should we move forward.


TopicIssues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

6)There appears to be an intergenerational effect of child labour over and above that which is transmitted through household income and parental education. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Child labour is abhorrent to the idea of a modern welfare state. It restricts the victims capacities and reduces their chances of upward socioeconomic mobility in many ways. It is important to analyze and discuss upon the intergenerational effect of child labour.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue of child labour and discuss whether there are any intergenerational effects of child labour over and above that which are transmitted through household income and parental education. We have to highlight those effects if any.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the prevalence of child labour across the world and in India.

Body-

  • Discuss the effects of household income and parental education on child labour. E.g household income and parental education determine the social and  economic opportunities available to the children which in turn forces them into child labor. Those involved in child labour further have a low household income and low or practically no educational qualifications which leads to Child labour of their descendants etc.
  • Discuss what are the other intergenerational effects. E.g low access to health facilities, higher and longer levels of various socio economic deprivations; more exposure to risks- physical, mental as well as social; discuss the effect and association of caste and gender with child labor etc.

Conclusion– mention the efforts of the government towards reducing child labor in India- RTE act, Child labour act, reservations for socially backward citizens etc. bring out the imperative to end child labour in India and suggest what should be done in this matter- e.g increasing spending on health and education etc.


General Studies – 4


TopicProbity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) A holistic approach for combating corruption would require an optimum mix of punitive and preventive measures, with more focus on the later. Discuss.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in depth about the need to combat corruption by deploying an optimum mix of punitive and preventive measures. It also wants us to do discuss, why should we focus more on preventive measures and how to do so.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write a few lines about the need to combat corruption in terms of the harms it inflicts on society, especially the poor and marginalized- give an ethical dimension to corruption.

Body-

  • Discuss the need to employ both  punitive as well as preventive measures in order to combat corruption. E.g Punitive measures act as a deterrent whereas preventive measures reduce opportunities for corruption by making systems transparent, increasing accountability, reducing discretion, rationalising procedures etc. Mention the punitive measures like PCA; Code of Conduct rules; Citizens Charters (quasi punitive?) etc.
  • Briefly discuss the inadequacies of punitive measures. E.g empirical evidence in India, besides so many acts corruption still is a major constraining epidemic; lack/ difficulty of/in monitoring; corruption  in judiciary itself; a large vulnerable population with lack of access to justice, power, resources etc.
  • Discuss why and how preventive measures should be stressed upon. E.g prevention is always better than cure; emerging role of technology which decreases human interface, brings transparency etc; Discuss the systemic reforms needed. E.g promoting competition; Simplifying transactions; using IT tools; promoting transparency; reducing discretion; integrity pacts etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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