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1)The narrative of slavery in India has changed to complement the changing needs of industries. Comment. (250 words)

Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1)The narrative of slavery in India has changed to complement the changing needs of industries. Comment. (250 words)




Why this question

Recently WalkFree Foundation released its Global Slavery Index which highlights the problem of modern slavery in India. Although outlawed, slavery in its various form still exists in Indian society. It is essential to understand the issue well and there is a dire need to end the practice in pursuance of the guarantee of the fundamental rights for all.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding on  the issue of modern slavery in India and discuss how the changing needs of the industries are leading to slavery in India. We have to form an opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about India’s performance as per Global Slavery Index. Also mention that although the methodology used in the survey is not free from controversies, India still has a large population suffering under modern slavery.


  • Mention the Bonded Labour or ‘bandhua mazdoor’ which was historically associated with rural economies where peasants from economically disadvantaged communities were bound to work for the landlords. Discuss the socioeconomic aspects of this form of slavery. E.g debt-slavery relationship; hereditary; exploitative; anathema to human rights and democratic ideals etc.
  • Discuss the modern slavery in India and which industries it is associated with. E.g industries such as brick kilns, stone quarries, coal mining, agricultural labour, domestic servitude, circus and sexual slavery;Children are also widely exploited under this inhuman system particularly in small scale industries such as firecracker units, match making units, textiles, leather goods manufacturing etc.
  • Discuss the constitutional, legal provisions. E.g article 23; Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976  to be read in compliance with other relevant labour laws such as Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979; the Minimum Wages Act, 1948. Mention the SC judgements.

Conclusion-Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.