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SYNOPSIS: Insights 70 Days Ethics Plan – Day – 20


Insights 70 Days Ethics Plan

Day – 20

1.Define/Differentiate the following in the context of public service with suitable examples :-

a) Civil service vs Public Service

Civil service is performed by a civil servant, a bureaucrat hired by the country’s government who works for the public sector. Conversely, public service is performed by a public servant, a person appointed by a member of the government to serve the population and perform public duties.

Civil servants are top ranked employees who work in various government’s departments and offices and whose duties vary according to their role and position. Public servants provide basic services to the population and to the most needy segments of society. The following are the public servants:-

  • Paramedics
  • Fire brigades
  • Police
  • Air force.

Just like civil service, public service is a service offered by the government to all individuals under its jurisdiction, including the most needy segment of societies. 

b) Administration vs Governance

Administration is the act of administering government of public affairs or the conducting of any office or employment. While governance is the process or the power of governing government or administration. 

Governance is formulating the laws, policies and acts, where as the administration is implementing the laws and policies enacted by the governance

Governance is involved with formulation of laws, polices, ordinances whereas administration related to day to day functioning of departments and law and order. Though a policy intention is good if administrator is not well intentioned person then aim of such policy is defeated.

For a successful society governance and administration are both essential.

Bringing legislation as Prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960 is part of governance whereas it’s implementation is called administration.

Ministry of finance is a governance structure and income and excise inspectors are administrators.

c) Foundational values of civil service

The public servants are guided by the following values while discharging their duties:

  • Patriotism
  • Allegiance to the Constitution
  • Objectivity, impartiality, honesty, diligence, courtesy and transparency
  • Absolute integrity

Some more values to be followed by public officials have been given by 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) Report. Some important attributes of Civil Servants:

  • Neutrality
  • Integrity
  • Honesty
  • Impartiality
  • Non-Partisanship
  • Objectivity
  • Legal responsibility comes from Objectivity
  • Moral responsibility comes from Values .It leads to transparency in decision-making
  • Dedication
  • Empathy
  • Tolerance & Compassion
  • Courage
  • High self-confidence & self-esteem but with humility

d) Aptitude vs Values

An aptitude is a constituent of a capability to perform certain task at a certain level. Aptitudes may be physical or mental. Aptitude is not knowledge, understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) or attitude.

Value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live or to describe the significance of different actions.


2) “Compassion is the basis of morality.” Do you agree? Justify.


A man without compassion would fail to understand others as good as one with it, compassion is useful because it helps us predict behavior of others and it helps us shift our point of view from ourselves to others.

Morality is the way we behave towards others and without others morality is inexistent. It’s the unwritten law which we tend to follow in our social interactions and use it to measure other people and other people use it to measure us. 

Not everyone puts themselves in the place of others because of factors such as greed, lust ,vengeance. Some humans find it more rewarding to be personally successful and to make good for themselves only so they ignore wishes and needs of others as if they don’t exist and some humans find it rewarding to harm others.

However it’s not only good for others when we’re acting with compassion because by satisfying others we satisfy ourselves, our ego gets the reward just as others praise us and thank us for our behavior and to a real human being this is enough to feel good. 

With respect to prisons compassionate officers would focus on reformation as it is more about reforming the person so it deals with compassion respecting the human dignity towards the person and trying to change him in to a good person through empathy.

Compassion by public servants will enhance the public service delivery mechanism to a next level altogether. Public duty involves certain morals like acccountability, not involving in illegal or corrupt practices, not neglecting one’s duties etc. When the element of compassion comes in to picture a public servant puts in efforts to help others rather than looking for personal benefits or escaping from the duties. This way, compassion makes any public servant to stick to the moral values in delivering his responsibilities

As a whole compassion isn’t the sole basis of morality, basis of morality is made both of compassion and rationality because in order to act morally towards others(so as to satisfy them and not to do them wrong) we need sense as much as we need emotions