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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 JULY 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 09 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

REVISION TIMETABLE FOR PRELIMS – 2018 

Revision Tests


General Studies – 1


Topic – Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1)Caste and communal consciousness carry the same essence in the Indian context. Comment in the light of recent mob lynching episodes in India. (250 words)

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Why this question

Lynching is an abominable social act and, against the rule of the law. The recent episodes of lynching have highlighted some of the essential aspects of Indian society which need to be assessed and deliberated upon so that the efforts to control such behaviour are well-focussed and effectively targeted.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and holistic understanding of the issue of mob-lynching in India. We have to bring out the effect of caste and social consciousness behind such episodes and bring out how they are related.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our broad knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an opinion thereupon. However, whatever our opinion, it is essential to support it with substantial and valid facts/ arguments/ explanations/ examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the mob-lynching episodes in India and their growing number of episodes across the india.

Body– Bring out the role of caste and communal consciousness behind the occurrence of such episodes.

E.g If the victim belongs to a minority community, it seems to invoke a complete contempt for the rule of law not only by the members of the dominant community, but, also by the defenders of the law; presence of strong prejudices and insecurity among the masses exacerbated by a tardy and biased judicial process; politicization and communalization of the issues in order to create social rifts and exploit them for nefarious political purposes; role of police in attending to, and investigating such cases and their inherent social and political biases which shape up their response; etc.

Conclusion- based on your own understanding and analytical skills and more importantly based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced opinion on the issue.


General Studies – 2


TopicImportant aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

2) Technology is reshaping the way government is designing and implementing programmes in India. Discuss. (250 words)

Yojana Magazine, June 2018 issue.

Why this question

Use and adoption of technology has been consistently growing at a very fast pace across all sectors including governance and administration. There have been various initiatives on part of the government to harness technology, in designing and implementing various development programmes, whose success is vital for India to achieve SDGs and become a developed nation.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about all such initiatives of the GoI (and also of state govts. If there are any worth mentioning), which are harnessing technology as a tool to improved governance.  We have to specifically discuss those programmes which are aiding the government in designing and implementation of various development programmes.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all encompassing directive which mandates us to write at length about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about why use of technology in the arena of governance and service delivery is important, what benefits it brings etc.

Body–  Discuss in points about the initiatives of the government, based on technology, in designing and implementing of various developmental programmes in India.

E.g DBT; JAM; PFMS; Government e-marketplace; UPI and BBPS; GST etc.

Here the names of the schemes is not as important as the facts depicting achievements; positive effects on economy, society and their further potential. So try to get as much factual facts from the article and incorporate them in your answer.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced opinion on the issue write in a few lines about the need to expand and adopt technologies like AI, blockchain technology etc.

 


TopicWelfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3)Only if women feel protected and secure, can the effectively participate in public life and contribute to the economic growth of the country. Discuss the initiatives taken by the government in this direction.(250 words)

Yojana Magazine, June 2018 issue.

 

Why this question

Women empowerment as well as protection is an extremely important issue for India. It is essential to make half the potential workforce of the country feel secure and protected, so that they can participate in public life and economic growth of the country.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to highlight the importance of women safety and the imperative to provide a secure and protected atmosphere to them, so that they can effectively participate in public life and economic growth of the country.

Directive word

Discuss – this is an all encompassing directive which mandates us to write at length about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the positive effects of increasing women participation in the economy e.g A McKinsey Global study in 2015 found that India could increase its GDP by 16-60% by 2025 by simply enabling women to participate in the economy at par with men.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons for low participation of women in public ife and the the economy in general. E.g role of entrenched gender norms in our society, the rising incomes of men (which raises family income and makes it easier for women to quit working), and the lack of quality jobs for women; lack of a safe and secure external and internal environment in India’s employment sector etc.
  • Discuss the recent initiatives taken by the government to tackle the issue of lack of security and protection, which hinders women participation. E.g Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme; Gender champions; setting up One Stop Centres under the Nirbhaya fund- offering a single window assistance to women facing violence; women helpline numbers providing emergency and non emergency assistance to women in distress; Trafficking of persons bills, 2018,  which seeks to provide a strong legal framework and dedicated institutions at various levels; new taxi policy guidelines like mandatory GPS; panic buttons; etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 


Topic:Part of static series under the heading “Veto Power”, Also falls under the heading “Comparison of constitutional schemes of various countries”

4) Compare and contrast the veto power of US President vis a vis Indian President?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine the similarities and differences between the veto powers of Indian and US president, we may also bring out the macro reasons for the differences.

Directive word

Compare and contrast – Discuss similarities and differences between the Indian and US president.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that while India is a Parliamentary democracy, US is a presidential form of democracy, this it is natural that differences may arise.

Body – First, explain the point of similarities between the two offices. Discuss the relevant constitutional provisions both for Indian and US presidents.  Thereafter highlight the point of differences between the two such as difference with respect to exercise of veto power, use of pocket veto, power with respect to state bille etc. Explain that this is so because the model of federalism, role of president etc varies.

Conclusion – Summarize your answer by mentioning that the similarities, little that they are, are primarily in form not in spirit.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) There are gainers and losers from the growing formalisation of retail sector in India. Critically examine the statement in the light of the recent  Flipkart-Walmart deal.(250 words)

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Reference

 

Why this question

The recent acquisition of 77% stake in Flipkart, by the US retail giant Walmart has been often in news lately. There are however some inapparent but interrelated issues highlighted by the deal. These issues have a bearing on India’s rural as well as urban sectors as can be gauged from the fact that Indian retail sector is the second largest employment provider in India.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the question and bring out the causes of growing formalization of Indian retail market and the implications of the same. Our answer should have a special, but not an absolute focus on the Flipkart-Walmart deal, which is just a small albeit important part of the growing formalization process.

Directive word

Critically examine- Here we have to dig deep into the given deal and growing formalization of retail sector in India and bring out the causes of the same as well as its implications for Indian economy and society at large.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the recent Flipkart-Walmart deal and the growing formalization of the retail sector in India, which is the second largest employment provider in India after agriculture.

Body-

  • Discuss the causes of the growing formalization of retail sector in India. E.g  urbanization and sustained economic growth; GST and the inherent structure thereunder which favours formalization of the economy; entry of big national and multinational players in the retail sector e.g reliance, tata; entry of FDI in retail sector etc.
  • Discuss the implications of increasing formalization of retail sector in India. Discuss the positive as well as negative effects.

Negative effects- effect on employment and economic equity; entry of multinational players will benefit the urban consumers with cheaper products but the agriculture sector could see a sharp increase in prices which will hurt badly the majority of the rural and urban poor etc.

Positive effects- bringing in state of the art technology and increased warehouse and cold storage facilities; reduction of waste and economics of scale; wider choice of products and lesser prices; infusing innovation and competition in the economy etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion and understanding, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue. Also write a few lines about  the wayforward- e.g provide training and skills to small retailers so that they can be gainfully employed in the emerging big retail outlets; any tendency of rising food prices, especially in the rural areas, due to procurement by giant retailers has to be handled either by subsidising the poor or by making them a part of the supply chain, which delivers the procured food items.

 


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6) Critically analyze the issue of mandatory fortification of Mid day Meal programme of India.(250 words)

Yojana Magazine, June 2018 issue

Why this question

MDM programme is one the most important programmes of India, directed towards reducing malnourishment among Indian children. The programme has received consideration and attention from the media as well as other stakeholders given its immense potential as well as the dire need to deliver.

Any initiative aimed at improving the effectiveness of the programme needs to be deliberated upon and hence is important for mains examination.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue of mandatory fortification of MDM programme and why there is such a need and implications of such an act.

Directive word

Critically analyze- here we have to identify all the important aspects of the question and bring out a detailed discussion on these key aspects and at the end we have to relate these aspects and present a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – mention the meaning of the term fortification and discuss the recently mooted decision of mandatory fortification of MDM.

Body

  • Discuss why there is such a need at the first place. E.g discuss the status of malnourishment in India and present some relevant facts; discuss the low nutritive value of normal ration of a poor family as well as the MDM; low vegetables and fruits in the MDM- children don’t get holistic food; easy to fortify the MDM and negligible logistical constraints in the same etc.
  • Discuss the benefits as well as the negative implications of the move. E.g Benefits- holistic growth and proper development of the child etc. Negative implications- no regard to food diversity; shortcut solution lacking natural components of food; issue of centralization of the process, entry of profit driven private sector; loss of local control and lack of local participation etc.

Conclusion– form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue and read the article carefully in order to bring out a way forward.


Topic – Indian Economy – issues

7) India is faced with a deluge of macroeconomic threats. Examine why and give suggestions to improve it?(250 words)

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Why this question

The article talks about the several macroeconomic challenges that India is faced with , which is necessary to understand from mains perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the macroeconomic challenges facing India, reasons behind the same and policy steps needed to address such challenges.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that India was passing through the Goldilocks zone, a situation in sharp contrast from now.

Body – Mention the macroeconomic challenges such as high CAD, lower inflation, high oil prices etc. Mention other problems like private investment not picking up etc. Explain the broad reasons for these issues and discuss the impact on growth of Indian economy going forward. Suggest steps through which the situation can be improved ( take ideas from the article and also elsewhere).

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need to tackle this to ensure stability of Indian economy.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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