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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Capped langur and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Alliance)


Capped langur and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Alliance)

Capped langur

  1. Vulnerable – IUCN
  2. Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act
  3. Appendix I in CITES
  4. primate in the family Cercopithecidae


  1. Habitat
  • subtropical or tropical dry forests.
  • Range : found in Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China, India, and Myanmar


  1. Threats
  • human alteration of habitat — jhum cultivation, plant monoculture, timber and firewood harvests, and other development, resulting in a loss of fruiting and lodging trees.
  • trade for their meat and other body parts, and as pets 



North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Alliance)

  1. intergovernmental military alliance
  2. Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949
  3. Headquarters — Brussels, Belgium
  4. headquarters of Allied Command Operations — Mons, Belgium.
  5. It constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party


  1. Members — 28 countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
  • It includes Canada, the United States, Turkey and most members of the European Union


  1. Objectives
  • political – NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • military – NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO’s founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.