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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: White-bellied Heron and Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)


White-bellied Heron and Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)

White-bellied Heron

  1. Critically Endangered – IUCN
  2. extremely rare bird
  3. Habitat
  • recorded from small or large rivers, usually with sand or gravel bars and marshes/lakes near wet grasslands
  • range — eastern Himalayan foothills in Bhutan and north-east India to the hills of Bangladesh, north Myanmar and
  • India – Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
  1. Threats
  • Loss and degradation of lowland forests and wetlands through direct exploitation and disturbance by humans
  • Natural forest fires have destroyed nests
  • Poaching
  1. Protected areas
  • Namdapha Tiger Reserve
  • Kaziranga National Parks
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Parks
  • Manas National Parks
  • Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary

Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)

  1. Asian–European political dialogue forum to enhance relations and various forms of cooperation between its partners
  2. ASEM represents around 62.3% of the world’s population, 57.2% of the global GDP and almost 60% of the world’s trade.
  3. established — 1996 at the first summit in Bangkok, Thailand


  1. The main components of the ASEM process rest on 3 pillars
  • Political Pillar
  • Economic Pillar
  • Social, Cultural & Educational Pillar


  1. Members — 53 partners – India is also a member
  • 51 countries
  • 2 regional organisations


  1. ASEM Summit
  • biennial meeting of Heads of State and Government alternately in Europe and Asia
  • 11th summit — Ulanbaatar declaration —  reaffirmed ASEM’s commitment for greater partnership through informal political dialogue and initiatives in economic and socio-cultural fields


  1. ASEM also involves biennial meetings of Foreign Ministers as well as political, economic, and socio-cultural meetings and events at various levels