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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Large Rock Rat (Elvira Rat) and United Nations Security Council (UNSC)


Large Rock Rat (Elvira Rat) and United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

Large Rock Rat (Elvira Rat)

  1. Critically endangered — IUCN
  2. nocturnal and burrowing rodent
  3. endemic to India


  1. Habitat

Tropical dry deciduous shrubland forest, seen in rocky areas


  1. Distribution

Known only from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu


  1. Threats
  • habitat loss
  • conversion of forests
  • fuel wood collection
  • mining and dumping of debris in the foothills of small hillocks in the reserve forest
  • uncontrolled grazing in the rocky areas

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

  1. one of the six principal organs of the United Nations
  2. it is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter
  3. It is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states


  1. powers

establishment of peacekeeping operations

establishment of international sanctions

authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions


  1. Membership–15
  • five permanent members — China, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and the Russian Federation
  • ten elected members
  • seats are distributed on a regional basis
  • elected by General Assembly for a two-year term


  1. Presidency

Presidency rotates monthly in alphabetical order of the Security Council member nations’ names in English


  1. Veto power (negative vote) — great power unanimity
  • Only to permanent member
  • It prevents adoption of a proposal, even if it has received the required number of affirmative votes


  1. The G4 Bloc

Group of 4 countries , (Germany ,Japan , Brazil ,India) bidding for permanent seats in the UN security council


  1. The Coffee Club or Uniting for Consensus
  • Group of countries opposed to the G4
  • They favoured the expansion of the non-permanent category of seats with members to be elected on a regional basis
  • Italy, Spain, Argentina, Canada, Mexico, South Korea and Pakistan