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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Pygmy Hog and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)


Pygmy Hog and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Pygmy Hog

  1. Critically endangered — IUCN
  2. world’s smallest wild pig
  3. indicators of the management status of grassland habitats. The grasslands where the pygmy hog resides are crucial for the survival of other endangered species such as Indian Rhinoceros, Swamp Deer, Wild Buffalo , Hispid Hare, Bengal Florican
  4. In 1996, a captive-breeding programme of the species was initiated in Assam, and some hogs were reintroduced in Sonai Rupai area in 2009


  1. Habitat
  • Relatively undisturbed, tall ‘terai’ grasslands


  1. Distribution
  • Formerly, the species was more widely distributed along the southern Himalayan foothills but now is restricted to only a single remnant population in Manas Wildlife Sanctuary and its buffer reserves


  1. Threats
  • loss and degradation of grasslands
  • dry-season burning
  • livestock grazing
  • afforestation of grasslands
  • Hunting
  • flood control schemes – as it disturbs the natural successions and the replacements of former grasslands by later stage communities


  1. Pygmy hog-sucking Louse, a parasite that feeds only on Pygmy Hogs will also fall in the same risk category of critically endangered as its survival is linked to that of the host species.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

  1. international financial institution
  2. specialised agency of the United Nations
  3. dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries
  4. established in 1977
  5. Headquarters — Rome, Italy
  6. It is one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference


  1. goal — empower poor rural men and women in developing countries to achieve higher incomes and improved living


  1. Objectives

IFAD seeks to ensure that poor rural people have better access to, and the skills and organisation they need to take advantage of:

  1. Natural resources, especially secure access to land and water, and improved natural resource management and conservation practices
  2. Improved agricultural technologies and effective production services
  3. A broad range of financial services
  4. Transparent and competitive markets for agricultural inputs and produce
  5. Opportunities for rural off-farm employment and enterprise development
  6. Local and national policy and programming