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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Mugger crocodile (Indian, Indus, Persian, Sindhu, marsh crocodile ) and International Court of Justice (ICJ; World Court)


Mugger crocodile (Indian, Indus, Persian, Sindhu, marsh crocodile ) and International Court of Justice (ICJ; World Court)

Mugger crocodile (Indian, Indus, Persian, Sindhu, marsh crocodile )

  1. Vulnerable – IUCN
  2. CITES Appendix I species
  3. one of the three crocodilians found in India, the others being the gharial and the saltwater crocodile


  1. Habitat
  • found in freshwater habitats including, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, hill streams, village ponds and man made tanks. It may also be found in coastal saltwater lagoons. This species is a hole-nesting species.
  • Range – throughout Indian subcontinent
  • species is found in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and possibly from Bangladesh, its range extends westwards into eastern Iran


  1. Threats
  • habitat destruction due to agricultural and industrial expansion
  • entanglement and drowning in fishing equipment
  • egg predation by humans
  • illegal poaching for skin and meat and the use of body parts in medicine
  • Crocodiles were often treated as pests to inland fisheries and killed whenever

International Court of Justice (ICJ; World Court)

  1. principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN)
  2. established in 1945 via UN charter
  3. Seat — The Hague, Netherlands
  4. Member – 193


  1. objective
  • It settles legal disputes between member states
  • gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies


  1. composition
  • comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms
  • They have to secure majority in both UN general assembly and security councilseperately
  • The judges can be reappointed


  1. There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed by geographic regions


  1. Ad hoc judges

Under article Article 31 any party to a contentious case (if it otherwise does not have one of that party’s nationals sitting on the court) to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible that as many as seventeen judges may sit on one case


  1. Enforcement
  • If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Council for enforcement action.
  • if the Security Council refuses to enforce a judgment against any other state, there is no method of forcing the state to comply