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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: The Sociable Lapwing and United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)


The Sociable Lapwing and United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

The Sociable Lapwing

  1. Critically endangered — IUCN
  2. winter migrant to India
  3. current IUCN classification is CR A3bc—meaning that the population is expected to decline in the next decade or so by 80%, but based on theoretical considerations and the known habitat destruction rather than direct observation of the birds


  1. Habitat
  • Fallow fields and scrub desert
  • Range— central Asia, middle east and Arabian peninsula
  • Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Egypt, India, Pakistan and Oman
  • India – It is restricted to the north and north-west of the country


  1. Threats
  • Conversion of habitat to arable land
  • illegal hunting
  • proximity to human settlements

United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

  1. Established in 2006 to replace UNCHR
  2. United Nations System inter-governmental body
  3. Aim : strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the world
  4. subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly


  1. History
  • successor to the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) –.heavily criticised for allowing countries with poor human rights records to be members
  1. Members – 47
  • Elected by : UN General Assembly
  • Term : 3 yesars and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms
  • The General Assembly takes into account the candidate States’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and commitments in this regard.
  • The seats are distributed on regional basis


  1. The General Assembly, via a two-thirds majority, can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership.


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