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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 MAY 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 MAY 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


TOPIC:  Role of women and women’s organization. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.


1)Indian women artists, have emphasised gender issues and discrimination in the form of paintings, sculptures, and installations since pre-independence times. Examine.(250 words)

 

Reference

Why this question

The discourse around the fight against gender discrimination is largely focused on the role of men, and women are usually denied any recognition of their contribution. Because it is related to GS 1 syllabus under the following heading-

Key demand of the question

The person wants us to bring out the role of women in highlighting gender issues and gender discrimination through the medium of art.

Directive word

Examine- we have to support our answer with the help of examples/ arguments/ facts i.e we have to justify that the Indian women highlighted gender issues and gender discrimination through art forms like painting, sculpture etc.

Structure of the answer

introduction- mention the discrimination faced by Indian women for centuries and countless attempts made to highlight an address the issue. Mention that women also played a significant role in this respect.

Body-

  1. Describe in points, the contribution of various women artists and their works with highlight gender issues and gender discrimination prevalent in India. e.g Amrita Sher Gill, Nilima Sheikh etc.

Conclusion– mention the need to recognise and channelise the contribution of women towards women empowerment add a better society.

 

 Background:-

  • Art has always been one of the most widely used mediums for expressing the plight of women in India. Despite women artists dealing with multiple issues since pre independence times most of the same issues are still prevalent in today’s society.

Contribution:-

  • Their paintings areoften introspective, and reveal the social hardships and tensions faced by many female artists.
  • They challenge social oppression and gender discrimination, and provides new models for the empowerment of women.
  • The most famous woman artist from India’s pre-independence era, Amrita Sher-Gil is responsible for influencing entire generations of painters with her artwork.
  • Nilima Sheikh’swork revolves around woman-centric themes.. Her most famous work, ‘When Champa Grew Up’ (1984), is a series of 12 tempera paintings that detail a true story of a young girl who gets married and then suffers torture and immolation at the hands of her husband’s family.
  • Arpita Singhportrays the everyday problems faced by women in a range of emotions  from suffering and sorrow to joy and hope.
  • One of the most significant developments over the last 30 years has been the emerging prominence of self-conscious female artists willing to challenge social norms.
    • The artworks are culturally specific and address the current and historical concerns within the Indian context. 
    • At the same time, they resonate with global concerns and introduce a woman’s subjectivity, which has been excluded from Indian art until now.
    • Vasudha Thozhur’s “Untouchable” recalls the Hindu practice of sati, in which a widow commits suicide on her husband’s funeral pyre. In her transgressive treatment of this patriarchal horror, Thozhur paints herself seated defiantly on a burning pile of wood, inviolable and untouched by the flames.
    • In the recent times Tayeba Lipi, a multimedia artist  broaches hard-hitting topics like feminism and transgender rights.
    • Photographer Gauri Gill, explored women’s personal safety on the streets and public transport in her exhibition.

 

Conclusion:-

  • With support from the government and awareness among the Indian public about art exhibitions these artists work can become popular and achieve further success.

TOPIC: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times ; Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

 

2)Discuss critically the role played by Archeological Survey of India (ASI) in preserving India’s art and architecture. Examine whether Apni Dharohar scheme should be extended to all World Heritage sites in India?(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question

The first part of the question demands us to critically analyze the role of ASI in maintaining and preserving the monuments of historical significance in India. Here the hits and misses of the role of ASI is to be brought out along with our own view on the significance and efficacy of ASI’s role. In the second part, we have to examine apni dharohar scheme, the discoloration of Taj Mahal and whether entrusting private parties with upkeep of world heritage site makes more sense.

Directive word

Discuss critically – The role of ASI has to be discussed. Since critically is suffixed, we need to provide our stand based on balanced arguments on how successfully ASI has played it’s mandated role.

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention in brief about ASI, SC’s observation on the role of ASI which has brought this topic in news.

Body

  • Discuss the role and functions of ASI
  • Discuss how successful ASI has been in fulfilling those roles and functions. Provide your view here
  • Explain apni dharohar scheme
  • Examine whether the upkeep of UNESCO world Heritage sites should be entrusted to private players in view of Taj experience. Provide both pros and cons of taking such a step.

Conclusion – Highlight the importance of preserving our heritage and the summary of your view on how it should be preserved based in your arguments above.

Background:-

  • Recently SupremeCourt (SC) came down heavily on the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) for its failure to take appropriate steps to protect and preserve of the iconic Taj Mahal. In this context there is a need to analyse the role of archeological survey of India.

Archeological survey of India:-

  • Archaeological Survey of India is an attached office of department of Culture with headquarters in New Delhi. It has 24 regional Circles and 5 Regional Directorates.
  • Its main functions are
    • preservation, conservation and environmental development of centrally protected monuments and sites, including World Heritage Monuments and antiquities
    • maintenance of gardens & development of new gardens surrounding centrally protected monuments and sites
    • exploration and excavation of ancient sites
    • specialized study of inscription and various phases of Indian architecture
    • maintenance of Archaeological site Museums
    • Operation of the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act
    • Research and Training in different areas of Archaeology

Role played by archeological survey of India :-

  • ASI had made the following contributions:-
    • Discoveries of existence of Harappan culture in places such as Kalibangan in Rajasthan and Dholavira in Gujarat
    • Excavations at Buddhist sites in Kanaganhali in Karnataka and Boxanagar in Tripura
    • Salvage operations at Nagarjunakonda, Andhra Pradesh, and conservation efforts in Hampi, Karnataka, are some of its remarkable projects.
  • The ASI protects 3,677 monuments and has copied more than 74,000 inscriptions.
  • It has shaped the discipline of archaeology, history and heritage conservation in the country through these significant contributions. 

Criticism:-

  • Plagued by funds crunch :-
    • Art and culture received only a meagre 0.16 per cent of the total Central Plan of the government in the Eleventh Five-Year plan allocation. As a result, the Ministry of Culture, which the ASI is a part of, received only a fraction of what it needed.
    • This would neither help expand the investigation of the unexplored historical landscape nor lead to greater investment in archaeological science. 
  • The casual approach to publication of reports also reflects the declining importance of excavation.
    • ASI spends less than one per cent of its total expenditure on excavations. As a result, it has not been be able to take up explorations in the manner and scale it has to.
  • Incompetence:-
    • Negligence has characterised the conservation efforts of most historical structures in the country, many of which are in advanced stages of decay and a few others lost forever.
  • State apathy:-
  • The CAG pointed to connivance by ASI officials as well. As the files of the ASI reveal, there are also numerous instances where politicians have proactively protected those who have illegally occupied the prohibited zone around monuments.
  • Despite all this, the fact remains that the ASI has not institutionally innovated to meet emerging challenges.

Apni darohar apni pehchan project:-

  • Adopt a heritage: Apni Dharohar, Apni Pehchaan is a collaborative effort among the tourism ministry, culture ministry, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), states and union territories.
  • Itaims to involve companies to take up the responsibility for making our heritage and tourism more sustainable through development, operation, and maintenance of world class tourist infrastructure and amenities at ASI/state heritage sites and other important tourist sites in India.
  • Monument mitrasare picked through a ‘vision bidding’ process in which those with the best plan for the heritage sites are chosen.
    • It is part of responsible tourism where the ‘Monument Mitra’ essentially spends his CSR funds for upkeep and maintenance etc., and gets limited visibility. 
  • The project primarily focusses on providing basic amenities that includes cleanliness, public conveniences, drinking water, ease of access for differently abled and senior citizens, standardized signage.
  • ‘The Adopt a Heritage’ is essentially a non-revenue generating project

The project should be extended to all world heritage sites because:-

  • Tourism:-
    • Adopt a Heritage project is meant to address the challenges that the Archaeological Survey of India and other government bodies are facing in operating tourisminfrastructure at heritage sites.
    • By allowing private players to build, operate and maintain “tourist-friendly” and “world class amenities at these sites, the expectation is that the project will boost domestic and international tourism.
  • Preserving monuments:-
    • Aga khan trust success on Humayun’s Tomb led to restoration of large  number of adjoining monuments
    • IT giant Infosys Ltd is also involved in restore monuments and organizing cultural shows in south India. In 2016, Infosys Foundation restored Somanatheswara temple complex in Karnataka’s Lakshmeshwara and around Rs 5 crore were spent over last four years.
  • Even in many countries conservation has improved when private entities were involved .

Concerns:-

  • Experts believe the government needs to tread with extreme caution as monuments can be exploited in this manner
  • Private companies are concerned about their revenues, and they don’t know much about conservation work. So the responsibility of the state increases in terms of supervising these companies closely.

Way forward:-

  • Every school must have age-group heritage clubswhich will look at the built, natural and cultural of heritage of the district it is in through lectures, field trips and exhibitions.
  • Humanities must be a compulsory subject in undergraduate education
  • Research into and documentation of lost or vanishing heritage (particularly into building materials, techniques etc.) and of the State’s historical past must be encouraged in higher educational institutions through liberal funding.
  • The government should enhance funding and confer the status of a scientific institution on the ASI to meet its special needs.
  • For its part, the ASI should decentralise and make its five regional directorates autonomous. They in turn, with active participation of local governments, should unravel more of the hidden past and protect them better.

Conclusion:-

  • Instead of allowing continued defacing and desecration of Indian heritage, one should encourage the Monument Mitra Programme and hope more and more companies come forward to save and salvage our collective national inheritance.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic -Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments,
significant provisions and basic structure.

3)The cabinet mission plan seemed to open an avenue for the reconciliation of a united India with Muslim autonomy. Examine.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss about the following

  • How did the plan reject the demand for Pakistan
  • Recommendations of the cabinet mission which had elements of united India with Muslim autonomy
  • The impact of the plan, whether the Hindu and Muslim leaders agreed with the provisions of the plan

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

In the case of above question on Cabinet Mission Plan, you have to probe the details of the provisions of the plan, find that if it really tried to create a united India with Muslim autonomy, how such a provision was received, and provide a balanced view. All within a given word limit.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – details about Cabinet Mission Plan and the status quo in India at that time

Body

  • How did the plan reject the demand for Pakistan
  • Bring out the provisions of the plan which rejected such a demand
  • What were the recommendations of the future constitution – which are in sync with united India with Muslim autonomy
  • How the provisions were received by various sections of political spectrum

Conclusion – provide a balanced view based on your arguments above.

Background:-

  • Cabinet Missionof 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India’s unity and granting it independence. 

How it rejected the demand for Pakistan and  seemed to open an avenue for the reconciliation of a united India with Muslim autonomy:-

  • The cabinet mission plan of 1946 proposed that there shall be a Union of India which was to be empowered to deal with the defense, foreign affairs and communications.
  • The cabinet mission recommended an undivided Indiaand turned down the Muslim league’s demand for a separate Pakistan. The Cabinet mission restricted the Communal representation
  • The representation of the Provincial legislatures was to be break up into 3 sections.
    • Section A: Madras, UP, Central provinces, Bombay, Bihar & Orissa
    • Section B: Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Baluchistan
    • Section C: Assam and Bengal.
    • These groups were entitled to have their own separate legislatures and to draw up their constitutions according to their own will with the help of the Constituent Assemblies to be elected by the popular electorate.
    • Though the Cabinet Mission plan rejected the idea of separate Pakistan, yet it grouped the provinces in such a way that it gave weightage to the idea of Pakistan, because the Section B would get almost complete autonomy.
  • One of the main reasons of rejection of Pakistan was somewhere linked to the justice to the Non Muslims particularly Sikhs.
    • The Mission had the views that the larger part of the proposed Pakistan including the Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan , NWFP and Bengal would have a large number of Non Muslims.
    • Then a smaller truncated Pakistan was also give thought but it was also rejected because , it was thought that Sikhs would be cut in two parts and their clusters of populations will get scattered around the borders.
  • Princely states were independent over the question of there participation in Indian constitutional assembly.

Impact:-

  • The Congress accepted the proposals related to the Constituent assembly.
  • But since, the Muslim league had been given disproportionate representation; it rejected the idea of the Interim Government. 
  • Congress also rejected the idea of a weak centre and division of India in small states. Congress was against decentralization and the idea was to have a strong centre.
  • The Muslim league first approved the plan. But when Congress declared that it could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, they rejected the plan and called the Muslims to resort to “Direct Action” to achieve  “Pakistan”. 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests

 

4)Pokhran-II and what followed has given India the right to claim the tag of a responsible power — a valuable diplomatic asset. Analyze. (250 words)

Indian express

The hindu

Why this question

After Pokhran-II tests, India declared itself as a full-fledged nuclear weapon state. But it brought adverse reaction from US, Japan, Australia etc. However, India has successfully managed to establish itself as a responsible power and is presently party to three out of four multilateral weapon export control regimes.The question is related to GS 2 syllabus under the following heading-

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to throw light on the Pokhran II tests and analyse the Indian response and how India managed to establish itself as a responsible power.

Direct word

Analyse- we have to dig deep into the question, identify key demands viz. Description of Pokhran II tests, their impact and how India managed to steer itself out of the adverse response of world powers and how it established itself as a responsible power.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- briefly describe the Pokhran II tests- date, type and number of bombs etc.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the aftermath of the tests- how world powers responded.
  2. Briefly discuss in points, factors which necessitated the development of nuclear weapons by India. e.g conflict with China and Pakistan, declaration of China as a nuclear state etc.
  3. Briefly discuss in points, how India managed to steer itself out of the controversy. e.g India’s no first use policy, adherence to the non-proliferation treaty without even being a signatory etc.

Conclusion– mention that India is presently a member of 3 out of 4 export control regimes and an established responsible nuclear power.

Background:-

  • Between  May 1th – 13th of 1998  India took a leap into the unknown world of nuclear weapon powers with the five tests at Pokhran 

How did the world powers respond:-

  • The tests shocked the world, particularly because they were done with utmost secrecy and the India-U.S. ties hit rock bottom. 
  • For nearly two months, the U.S. refused to have any dialogue with India and implemented the Glenn Amendment for the first time. 
  • Newer sanctions were imposed. The US, China, and the UK were critical of India’s nuclear tests, but Russia and France  and even Britain were not in favour of sanctions. 

India had to move towards nuclear weapons under the following circumstances :-

  • Idea of nuclear weapons was to  neutralise conventional Chinese military superiority
  • Having them was an enabler and equaliser .It is a weapon not necessarily intended for use, but the threat of whose use could achieve political and military goals.
  • By the late 1990s, India was faced with a situation in which two neighbours with whom it had fought wars, Pakistan and China, already had nuclear weapons, and were working together to build their capabilities and proliferate them in Asia. By conducting the tests, India was able to insulate itself from nuclear threats.
  • Maintain peace and Stability in the region.

India is a responsible power:-

  • Indian diplomacy triumphed in turning a grave crisis into an opportunity by securing legitimacy for its nuclear arsenal and removing obstacles in generating nuclear power. 
  • Nuclear deals have brought India to the nuclear mainstream and opened up the global nuclear market for development of nuclear power without signing the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) or the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
  • India refused to sign the CTBT, but declared a moratorium on testing, agreed to join the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty negotiations without halting fissile material production
  • India reaffirmed minimum deterrent without giving any number of warheads and agreed to strengthen export controls.
  • Additionally, India declared no-first-use and commitment to disarmament:-
    • It would not be the first to use nuclear weapons against other countries. But if nuclear weapons were used against India, it would retaliate, and inflict unacceptable pain on the adversary.
    • This nuclear weapons doctrine has since become the cornerstone of India’s diplomatic, military and political policy in the international arena.
  • Even though India placed its civilian nuclear facilities under perpetual safeguards, its nuclear assets remained fully insulated against external scrutiny and interference. India secured rights to receive uninterrupted nuclear fuel supplies as a trade-off against safeguards.
  • It kept open its right to acquire advanced enrichment and reprocessing technologies, although it would require bilateral negotiations with the U.S. and others.
  • India’s sovereign right to test a nuclear device in the future has remained intact.
  • India is now a member of three out of four multilateral export control regimes MTCR, Wassenaar Arrangement, Australia Group  and is in the reckoning for membership of the NSG.
  • There is no Evidence of India’s involvement in illegal nuclear proliferation. This has earned India Civil nuclear deals with nations like Japan.

Conclusion:-

  • Pokhran-II gave India the strategic space to manoeuvre at the world stage, and to showcase its international behaviour on the rules-based system  and what followed has given India the right to claim the tag of a responsible power and a valuable asset in times when powers like the US and China are perceived to be not adhering to international commitments.

Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

5) Critically examine whether making healthcare affordable through capping of prices would solve the problem of Out of Pocket Expenditure in health in India?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Capping or prices is a usual policy recourse of the government in trying to make healthcare more affordable. However, such quick fixes raises more questions than the answers it provide. Thus it is best to analyze whether this penchant of the government to cap prices helps in improving healthcare delivery and affordability.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to incorporate the following points in our answer

  • Highlight the instances where price capping has been used as a tool
  • Debate on the principles of such a move – whether capping of price is a well intentioned move which will make healthcare more affordable or whether it creates issues of quality, private sector apathy etc
  • Conclude with your view

Directive word

Critically examine – Here we have to get into the depth of price capping method of the government, examine its pros and cons, causes and impacts, views of all stakeholders and come to a fair and balanced stand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – discuss some recent move by the government introduction price controls in healthcare and the debates that it raises.

Body

  • Highlight some of the instances of price capping – stents, medicines (NLEM) etc . Bring out the impacts of such a move
  • Flowing from that discuss about the pros and cons of instituting price controls
  • Discuss why the government goes for such a move and the impact it has on delivery of healthcare
  • Identify some other steps that can be taken to ensure healthcare becomes more affordable

Conclusion – provide your view on the usefulness of price controls and the way forward.

Background:-

  • Health sector saw major initiatives to bring down and cap prices of essential medicines through price control, coupled with moves to expand a network of cheaper drug dispensaries in the recent years.

Capping of prices will reduce out of pocket expenditure:-

  • Price control played a major role in enhancing savings on medicines, which constitute at least 40% of an household’s expenditure on health. 
  • Apart from price capping, the government also worked on opening AMRIT and Jan Aushadhi stores to make generic drugs available at a discounted price.
  • Government has also brought stents under price control, providing a major relief to patients suffering from heart disorders. 

No, capping of prices is not the solution:-

  • In a country where two-thirds of the population is denied access to quality healthcare today, it is important to quickly guarantee universal health coverage.
  • A large part of the population is denied access due to poor availability of hospitalisation, specialists and drugs.
  • In the absence of a fully functioning public health system, it is the private sector that people must depend upon. 
  • If capping of prices is done through government-ordered arbitrary price fixing, it could only result in drug firms pulling out products and, thereby, stocks will run dry.
  • If hospitalisation costs are capped, patients will suffer long waiting periods and other hidden costs. 
  • Criticism to government’s stand on pricing of stents and other medical implants:-
    • Stent price capping has resulted in eliminating the choice of stents  Furthermore, there have been multiple reports  that hospitals have cited no significant increase in the number of angioplasty procedures performed, after the move on stent price control.
  • Despite price control reducing costs, overall medical bills remain a challenge as procedure costs continue to be high and insurance coverage is low

Way forward:-

  • Centralised drug procurement has been effectively used in states like Tamil Nadu to bring down costs. Rest of the states can emulate that.
  • A well-functioning generics market is required to give the poor access to inexpensive drugs. 
  • Primary health centres must be well-staffed, public health improved and supply chains should be made functional. 
  • The state must first realise that primary healthcare and public health are the government’s responsibility and must be guaranteed to all. The private sector can, at best, supplement this effort.
  • Drug firms must be incentivised to innovate and invest in research and development. India needs to increase  GDP being spent by the government on healthcare.
  • Only way to decrease out-of-pocket expenses on health by the average Indian is to hold true to the promise of universal, affordable, and accessible healthcare in a welfare state.

General Studies – 4


TOPIC :  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations
and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
relations and funding; corporate governance.

6) There is an ample yet subtle difference between ethics, morals and laws. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

 

Why this question

Morals and ethics are closely related concepts, which although similar in many respects have very subtle differences between them. Both are one of the basic concepts in the study of ethics and law is often compared to them. The question is related to GS 4 syllabus under the following heading-

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to simply differentiate between morals, laws and ethics; their source, meaning, aim etc.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about the given issue i.e difference between morals, laws and ethics.

Structure of the answer-

Introduction- mention that ethics, morals and laws are closely related concepts but they differ from each other in many respects.

Body

Discuss and differentiate between Laws morals and ethics in points- (origins, what they mean, what they intend, repercussions of not following them etc.).

Conclusion– form a fair, balanced and concise conclusion based on the above-held discussion and on the basis of similarities between them .

 

Answer:-

The state is founded on the minds of its citizens, who are moral agents .Bad people means a bad state and bad laws. Law and morality are complementary to each other. Ethics teaches citizens the code of conduct. Moral and ethical issues occur at both a local and a global level, and laws and other legal instruments have been developed at both levels to implement the moral and ethical standards of society.

Ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual’s own principles regarding right and wrong. Laws, on the other hand, reflect the collective conscience of a nation. As such, they apply uniformly to all who fall within their jurisdiction.

Ethics   shows them the distinction between truth and a falsehood. It makes us aware of the wrongness and rightness of our actions. Ethics enables us to think in moral terms and upgrades us in moral terms. It helps us in raising our moral standard. Laws framed by the state also aim at the same.

 

Laws Vs ethics :-

  • Ethics are moral philosophy where a person makes a specific moral choice and sticks to it, whereas law is a system that comprises of rules and principles to govern a society. Though, ethics are based on the goodwill of law, ethics completely differ in their foundation, basis and purpose. 
  • Law is a derivative of ethics, law does not focus on promoting social ideas, it merely promotes the convention of a good society.
  • Laws help shape politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relationships between people. Ethics, being about actions and decisions, helps to shape an individual’s conscience and character.
  • The connection between law and ethics depends on perception, because often what is perceived as unethical is usually considered illegal.
  • Law does not prohibit many acts that would widely be condemned as unethical. For example, lying or betraying the confidence of a friend is not illegal, but most people would consider it unethical. Also, speeding is illegal, but many people may not have any ethical conflict with exceeding the speed limit. So, law is more than simply codifying ethical norms.
  • There is valid punishment for breaking the law which is not the case with ethics.

Ethics Vs morals:-

  • Ethics are external standards that are provided by institutions, groups, or culture to which an individual belongs. Morals are also influenced by culture or society, but they are personal principles created and upheld by individuals themselves.
  • Consistency and Flexibility
  • Ethics are very consistent within a certain context, but can vary greatly between contexts. For example, the ethics of the medical professionin the 21st century are generally consistent and do not change from hospital to hospital, but they are different from the ethics of the 21st century legal profession.
  • An individual’s moral code is usually unchanging and consistent across all contexts, but it is also possible for certain events to radically change an individual’s personal beliefs and values.
  • A person strictly following Ethical Principles may not have any Morals at all. Likewise, one could violate Ethical Principles within a given system of rules in order to maintain Moral integrity.
  • A Moral Person although perhaps bound by a higher covenant, may choose to follow a code of ethics as it would apply to a system. Ethics are governed by professional and legal guidelines within a particular time and place. Morality transcends cultural norms.

Law Vs morals :-

  • Laws are concerned with external acts of man and not motives .
  • Laws are enforced by the state whereas canons of morality are followed at the call of institution. If one disobeys the commands of law or violates the laws, he is liable to be punished by the state but if one fails to observe the scruples of morality, he is not liable to be awarded physical punishment.
  • Morality is concerned with both internal and external affairs of man whereas law is concerned only with the external affairs of man. Hence, law punishes only those persons who violate laws by their external actions.
  • There are many things which are not illegal according to law but are unacceptable to morality. For example, telling lies, showing disgrace to others, feeling greedy, being ungrateful and not helping the poor, are not against the spirit of law.
  • Not only this, sometimes the adoption of immoral policies by the state for the cause of common welfare is not illegal in the eyes of laws.
  • Laws are certain and universal and they are universally applicable to all citizens whereas the canons of morality are quite uncertain.
  • Laws which are not based on the sentiment of morality are less effective and less permanent

 

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