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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Irrawaddy Dolphin and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) — Washington Convention


PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018

Irrawaddy Dolphin and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) — Washington Convention


Irrawaddy Dolphin


  1. endangered  — IUCN
  2. not a true river dolphin
  3. Habitat
  • oceanic dolphin living in brackish water near coasts, river mouths and in estuaries in South and Southeast Asia
  • Found in – Ganges, Mekong and Irrawaddy river system
  • habitat range — from the Bay of Bengal to New Guinea and the Philippines
  1. It is slaty blue to slaty gray throughout, with the underparts slightly paler
  2. Identification — bulging forehead, short beak.
  3. They do not appear to venture off shore
  4. Threats — patchy and fragmented distribution of Irrawaddy Dolphins in both coastal waters and rivers renders them particularly vulnerable to threats from human activities concentrated in the same areas
    • fishing nets
    • developmental projects like construction of dams that alters the hydrological characteristics of water
    • Deforestation and gold, sand, and gravel mining are causing major changes to the geomorphic and hydraulic features of rivers and marine-appended lakes
    • tourism
    • diseases

 

 


Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) — Washington Convention


 

  1. International agreement to regulate worldwide commercial trade in wild animaland plant species. It also restricts trade in items made from such plants and animals, such as food, clothing, medicine, and souvenirs
  2. Signed — 3  March 1973 (Hence world wildlife day is celebrated on march 3)
  3. The agreement was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It entered into force in July 1975
  4. Administration—- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  5. Secretariat —  Geneva (Switzerland)
  6. Aim — ensure that international trade does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild
  7. Parties – 183
  8. CITES is legally bindingon state parties to the convention, which are obliged to adopt their own domestic legislation to implement its goals.
  9. It classifies plants and animals according to three categories, or appendices, based on how threatened. They are.
  • Appendix I: It lists species that are in danger of extinction. It prohibits commercial trade of these plants and animals except in extraordinary situations for scientific or educational reasons.
  • Appendix II species: They are those that are not threatened with extinction but that might suffer a serious decline in number if trade is not restricted. Their trade is regulated by permit.
  • Appendix III species: They are protected in at least one country that is a CITES member states and that has petitioned others for help in controlling international trade in that species.