INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 39(Geography)
- A man observes that a flag-pole outside his home casts no shadow on 21st March at 12 o’clock noon. His home is at
a) North Pole
c) Tropic of cancer
d) Arctic circle
Sun rays fall vertically on Equator on 21st March (Spring Equinox). Hence the pole on equator on 21st March does not cast the shadow.
2.Consider the following statements regarding the distribution and pattern of isotherms:
- In the northern hemisphere, isotherms bend sharply equator-ward over the continents during winter.
- Temperature gradients are greater in summer than in winter in the northern hemisphere.
Which of the following statements is/are correct
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
On the continents of northern hemisphere, during winters isotherms bend sharply towards the equator. Whereas they bend towards the pole over the oceans in winter.
Temperature gradient is more pronounced during winter than during summer.
3 . A temperature inversion is most likely to occur under which of the following conditions.
a) Mountain top in late evening
b) Windy but cloudy night
c) Calm, cloudy and humid night
d) Calm, clear and cool winter night
A long winter night with clear skies and still air is ideal situation for inversion. The heat of the day is radiated off during the night, and by early morning hours, the earth is cooler than the air above. Over polar areas, temperature inversion is normal throughout the year.
4 . In the northern hemisphere, tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones are similar in that both
a) Originate over warm ocean
b) are formed only during the summers
c) have winds that blow counter-clockwise around their centers
d) generally move from from east to west
Tropical cyclones as well as Temperate cyclones have anti-clockwise rotation of winds in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
5 . Identify the correct sequence of the given processes regarding rainfall:
a) unsaturated air, condensation, dew point, precipitation
b) dew point, condensation, unsaturated air, precipitation
c) unsaturated air, dew point, condensation, precipitation
d) dew point, condensation, precipitation, unsaturated air
The unsaturated air, as rises, gets adiabatically cooled and its relative humidity increases. The temperature at which saturation takes place is called dew point. When humidity exceeds 100% condensation takes place leading to precipitation.
6 . The hot dust-laden wind blowing from Sahara desert to Mediterranean region is called the
Warm and dry local winds blowing on the leeward sides of the mountains are called chinook in the USA and foehn in Switzerland. Sirocco is a warm, dry and dusty (full of sands) local wind which blows in northerly direction from Sahara Desert and after crossing over the Mediterranean Sea reaches Italy, Spain etc. Mistral is a cold local wind which blows in Spain and France from north-west to south-east direction. These winds are more common and effective during winter season because of development of high pressure over Europe and low pressure over Mediterranean Sea. They become extremely cold when they blow through central plateau and descend into Rhone valley on the southern coast of France.
7 . Kuoshio is a warm ocean current which runs from
a) Philippines to Japan
b) Indonesia to Philippines
c) Japan to Indonesia
d) Sri Lanka Indonesia
The north equatorial current turns northwards due to the obstruction of Philippines and thus forms the Kuroshio current which flows from Philippines to islands of Japan.
8 . Which one of the following is NOT a factor modifying ocean currents
a) Direction and shape of the coast-line
b) Revolution of the earth
c) Seasonal variation in winds
d) Bottom topography
Rotation of earth influences ocean currents and but not the revolution of earth. Seasonal variation of monsoon winds influences ocean currents of Indian Ocean. Sea floor topography influences ocean circulation in two basic ways. First, it steers ocean flows. Second, it provides barriers that prevent deep waters from mixing, except within deep passageways that connect ocean basins.
9 . Consider the following statements regarding Madden Julian oscillation
- is eastward moving ‘pulse’ of clouds, rainfall, winds and pressure near the equator.
- is confined to Indian ocean only
Which of the following is/are correct
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above
MJO is an oceanic-atmospheric phenomenon which affects global weather activities. The MJO can be defined as an eastward moving ‘pulse’ of clouds, rainfall, winds and pressure near the equator. MJO is different from El Nino and IOD. It is a transient feature and that typically recurs every 30 to 60 days.
As its periodicity extends up to 60 days at times, it is also known as ISO or Intra Seasonal Oscillation.
This traversing planetary scale phenomenon travels across the equatorial region of the Globe carrying a pulse of clouds and rains. It amplitude or powers is invariably large over warmer waters of the Indian Ocean and relatively less over the cooler waters of the Pacific Ocean.
- Bowl shaped depression created as a result of glacial erosion high on a mountainside is called
(a) Glacial trough
(c) Hanging valley
Features associated with glacier erosion in alpine regions are cirques, horns, and arêtes. Cirques are the bowl shaped depressions found at the head of glacial valleys. For most alpine glaciers, cirques are the areas in the alpine valleys where snow first accumulated and was modified into glacial ice.
Glacial troughs are also known as U shaped valleys. U-shaped valleys have steep sides and a wide, flat floor. They are usually straight and deep. They are formed in river valleys which, during the ice age, have been filled by a large glacier. These glaciers have deepened, straightened and widened the valley by plucking and abrasion.
A hanging valley is a smaller side valley left ‘hanging’ above the main U-shaped valley formed by a tributary glacier.
- Grassland biomes around the Earth vary in several ways, but the chief factor causing the variation is
(a) Amount of rainfall
(b) Soil type
(d) Prevailing winds
Variation in grassland biome across the world is essentially because of the variation of climatic conditions. Vegetation of region is influenced by topography and climatic conditions.
- In which biome would a person most likely to observe the midnight sun
(a) Temperate rain forest
(d) Tropical rain forest
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle. The biome in this region is Tundra type. The temperate rainforest biome is mainly located on the northern Pacific coast of North America (from Oregon to Alaska for about 1,200 miles). Though there are also temperate rainforests in Chile in South America, Japan and some of southeastern Russia and northwestern and southern China, and in New Zealand and Australia. So in general temperate rainforest are found mid-latitude
- Which of the following statement in general explains most favorable condition for Indian monsoons
(a) During El-nino years
(b) Sub-tropical Westerly Jet-Streams(STWJS) located to the south of Himalayas during summer
(c) Weak Somali jet-stream
(d) Normal Walker cell circulation coupled with high Sea Surface Temperature (SST) on Western Indian Ocean
During normal Walker cell circulation South East trade are stronger. High SST on western Indian Ocean (positive IOD) helps in greater moisture content of monsoon winds. Hence it is highly favorable for monsoons.
During El-nino years monsoons usually are weaker because of weak south east trade and development of low pressure over Northern Africa
Strong Somali jet pushes the south west winds towards Indian subcontinent
For the onset of monsoons, STWJS should shift to the north of Himalayas. STWJS location over north Indian plains creates high pressure which is not favorable for monsoon over northern part.
- Currents in the deep oceans are driven by
(b) coriolis effect
(c) density difference
(d) seafloor earthquakes
Winds drive ocean currents in the upper 100 meters of the ocean’s surface. However, ocean currents also flow thousands of meters below the surface. These deep-ocean currents are driven by differences in the water’s density, which is controlled by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline). This process is known as thermohaline circulation.
- Amongst the given options, which one of the following is the highest mountain peak
(a) Mount Elbrus
(b) Mount Aconcagua
(c) Mount Kilimanjaro
(d) Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Elbrus (5642 m)- Highest peak of Europe
Mount Aconcagua(6962 m) – Highest peak of South America
Mount Kilimanjaro(5895 m) -Highest peak of Africa
Mount Kosciuszko(2228 m) -Highest peak of Australia
- Takla Makan desert is located between
(a) Kunlun Shan and Tian shan
(b) Hindu Kush and Karakoram range
(c) Tian Shan and Altai mountains
(d) Kunlun Shan and Kailash range
The Taklamakan Desert is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China. It is bounded by the Kunlun Mountains to the south, the Pamir Mountains and Tian Shan(ancient Mount Imeon) to the west and north, and the Gobi Desert to the east.
- Caucasus mountains extends between
(a) Caspian sea and Mediterranean sea
(b) Black sea and Aegean sea
(c) Black sea and Caspian sea
(d) Caspian sea and Aral sea
- Amongst the following, identify the hot semi-desert of Europe
(a) Mojave desert
(b) Tabernas desert
(c) Sonaran desert
(d) Nagev desert
Tabernas is arid region in Spain’s Almeria province considered as the true desert of Europe. Mojave and Sonaran are in North America whereas Negev is in Israel.
- Golan height a rocky-plateau in West Asia is disputed between
(a) Jordan and Syria
(b) Syria and Lebanon
(c) Iraq and Iran
(d) Israel and Syria
- Which one of the following country is NOT party to Territorial claims in the Arctic and North pole
(b) United Kingdom
(c) United States
All land, internal waters, territorial seas and EEZs in the Arctic are under the jurisdiction of one of the eight Arctic coastal states: Canada, Norway, Russia, Denmark (via Greenland), Iceland, Sweden, Finland and the United States.