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PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa, Mynha) and Central American Integration System (SICA)


Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa, Mynha) and Central American Integration System (SICA)

Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa, Mynha)

  1. Least Concern (LC) — IUCN
  2. State bird of Meghalaya and chattisgarh
  3. resident in hill regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia
  4. It is known for its ability to mimic noises including human speech.
  5. member of the starling family (Sturnidae)
  6. omnivorous bird
  7. habitat
  • Hill myna like areas where rainfall and humidity are both high. They prefer jungles, evergreen, and wet deciduous forests. They occurs in moist or semi-evergreen forest in lowlands, hills and mountains
  • Range — Himalayan foothills up to about 2500 ft., also occur through Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and China, Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines
  • India — Western Ghats , east and north-east (Arunachal Pradesh and the lower Himalayas)
  1. Schedule – I of wildlife (Protection) act, 1972
  2. Threat
  • Trade
  • habitat loss 



Central American Integration System (SICA)

  1. set up in 1991
  2. Administrative center — El Salvador San Salvador, El Salvado
  3. institutional framework for Regional Integration in Central America
  4. observers in United Nations General Assembly
  5. former organizations
  • Organisation of Central American States (ODECA) – 1951
  • Central American Common Market — 1960
  1. Membership — 8 states
  2. regional observers – 8
  3. objectives
  • to consolidate democracy and strengthen its institutions;
  • to set up a new model of regional security;
  • to achieve a regional system of welfare and economic and social justice;
  • to attain economic union and strengthen the Central American financial system and
  • to strengthen the region as an economic bloc in order to insert it successfully into the international economy
  1. Central America Four or CA-4

Four countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) experiencing political, cultural and migratory integration have formed this group

  • Organisations
  • Central American Parliament ,Parlacen — a parliamentary body
  • Central American Court of Justice — to promote peace in the region and the unity of its member states.
  • Central American Bank for Economic Integration