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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii, grey-bellied tragopan) and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)


Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii, grey-bellied tragopan) and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii, grey-bellied tragopan)

  1. Vulnerable (VU) — IUC
  2. State bird of Nagaland
  3. pheasant species  & omnivores bird
  4. These birds are secretive, shy and suspicious of humans, and quick to hide amongst the dense vegetation they inhabit if disturbed
  5. name — commemorates Edward Blyth (1810–1873), English zoologist and Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
  6. Habitat
  • inhabits subtropical and temperate, evergreen oak and rhododendron forests, generally preferring a dense understorey, often dominated by bamboos or ferns, in steep or rocky terrain
  • North-east India, Bhutan, North Myanmar to south-east Tibet, and China
  • India — Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Manipur
  1. Threats
  • Habitat fragmentation due to deforestation ( result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood-collection and commercial timber extraction)
  • Hunting for food (particularly in Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh)
  • hydroelectric project developments, and associated road-building and residential expansion (Arunachal Pradesh)
  1. Conservation
  • CITES Appendix I.
  • Schedule – I of wildlife (Protection) act, 1972
  • Protected areas
  1. Blue Mountain National Park — Mizoram
  2. Mouling National Park  — Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Mehao and Dibang wildlife sanctuaries — Arunachal Pradesh


Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

  1. Eurasian political, economic, and security organization
  2. Headquarter – Beijing, China
  3. Founded – 1996
  4. official working languages — Chinese and Russian
  5. Timeline of organization development
  • 1996 — Shanghai Five — China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan
  • 2001 – Uzbekistan joined the group as sixth member & creation of SCO was announced
  • 2002 — Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter was signed
  • 2003 – SCO chartered was entered into force
  • 2017 – Astana Summit – India and Pakistan joined group
  1. Observer status — Iran, Mongolia, Belarus, Afghanistan
  2. Organisation Structure
  • Council of Heads of State — top decision-making body in the SCO.
  • Council of Heads of Government — second-highest council in the organisation. This council also holds annual summits, at which time members discuss issues of multilateral cooperation. The council also approves the organisation’s budget.
  • Council of Foreign Ministers — discuss the current international situation and the SCO’s interaction with other international organisation
  • Council of National Coordinators — coordinates the multilateral cooperation of member states within the framework of the SCO’s charter
  • Secretariat — primary executive body of the organization
  1. The Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS)
  • Headquarter —Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • permanent organ of the SCO
  • promote cooperation of member states against the three evils of terrorism, separatism and extremism.
  • Head of RATS is elected to a three-year term
  • Each member state also sends a permanent representative to RATS