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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Northern goshawk and World Heritage Convention, 1972


Northern goshawk and World Heritage Convention, 1972

Northern goshawk

  1. It is a raptor
  2. Name – in latin it means to grasp
  3. Least concerned – IUCN
  4. State bird of Punjab
  5. Habitat
  • Inhabits many of the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere
  • Goshawks are birds of wild forests and tend to occur in large tracts. Across much of their range they live mainly in coniferous forests, but they may occur in deciduous hardwood forest as well 



  1. Threat
  • persecution
  • deforestation
  • poisoning from pesticides and heavy metals.
  • S.A. — clear-cut, even-aged, short-rotation forest management reduces habitat quality for the species as does removal of old growth forest patches


World Heritage Convention, 1972

  1. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
  2. By UNESCO
  3. primary mission — to identify and protect the world’s natural and cultural heritage considered to be of Outstanding Universal Value
  4. governed by — World Heritage Committee supported by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre (Established in 1992)
  5. IUCN is the Advisory Body on natural heritage. 
  6. It recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two
  7. Cultural criteria
  • “represents a masterpiece of human creative genius and cultural significance”
  • “exhibits an important interchange of human values, over a span of time, or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning, or landscape design”
  • “to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared”
  • “is an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural, or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage in human history”
  • “is an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture, or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change”
  • “is directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance”
  1. Natural criteria
  • “contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance”
  • “is an outstanding example representing major stages of Earth’s history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features”
  • “is an outstanding example representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems, and communities of plants and animals”
  • “contains the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation”
  1. India

There are 36 (28 cultural, 7 natural and 1 mixed) World Heritage Sites in India that are recognised by the UNESCO as of April 2018.