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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Dugong and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)






Dugong and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)




  1. Vulnerable — IUCN
  2. Strictly marine herbivorousmammal
  3. Largely dependent on sea grasscommunities for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support sea grass meadows


  1. Habitat


Coastal areas, shallow to medium deep, warm waters with sea grass beds


  1. Threats
  • Incidental capture in fishing gear, shark nets for bather protection
  • Hunting: legal (i.e. culturally sanctioned) and illegal
  • Boat strikes and boating activities (e.g. acoustic pollution)
  • Damage/modification/loss of habitat caused by human settlement on coasts, shipping, trawling destructive fishing, natural processes (e.g. cyclones and tsunamis)
  • Threats to sea grass (including untreated sewage disposal, coastal dredging and reclamation, inshore commercial trawling, agricultural pollution)
  • Chemical pollution (e.g. oil spills and heavy metal loads)
  • Climate change (extreme weather events and high temperatures)


 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

  1. Established in 1948
  2. Headquarter — Gland, Switzerland


  1. Former name
  • International Union for the Protection of Nature(1948–1956)
  • World Conservation Union(1990–2008)

IUCN categories

  1. International organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources
  2. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education.
  3. Observer and consultative status at the United Nations,
  4. Global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it.
  5. UCN Council – the governing body


  1. IUCN World Conservation Congress
  • Held once every four years
  • Brings together several thousand leaders and decision-makers from government, civil society, indigenous peoples, business, and academia, with the goal of conserving the environment and harnessing the solutions nature offers to global challenges.
  • Forum — hub of public debate, bringing together people from all walks of life to discuss the world’s most pressing conservation and sustainability challenges
  • Members’ Assembly— IUCN’s highest decision-making body. A unique global environmental parliament, it involves governments and NGOs – large and small, national and international – taking joint decisions on conservation and sustainability


  • UCN Red List of Threatened Species( IUCN Red Listor Red Data List)
  • Founded in 1964
  • World’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species

Species are classified into nine groups based on criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation


  1. Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining
  2. Extinct in the wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range
  3. Critically endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild
  4. Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild
  5. Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild
  6. Near threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future
  7. Least concern (LC) – Lowest risk (Does not qualify for a more at-risk category; widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.)
  8. Data deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction
  9. Not evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria