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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Snow leopard/Ounce((Panthera uncia) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)






Snow leopard /Ounce((Panthera uncia) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)


Snow leopard (ounce)


  1. Vulnerable — IUCN  :Ounce((Panthera uncia)
  2. State animal of Himachal Pradesh
  3. Native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia


  1. Habitat
  • Inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft), ranging from western Afghanistan to Mongolia and western China( Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau) 
  • India —  Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh


  1. Threats
  • Habitat loss and degradation
  • Decline of the cats’ large mammal prey
  • Poaching — body parts used for traditional Chinese medicine


  1. Protected areas
  • Hemis National Park — Jammu and Kashmir
  • Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nanda Devi National Park —  Uttarakhand


  1. Global Snow Leopard Forum, 2013

12 countries encompassing the snow leopard’s range (Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan)

Bishkek Declaration – To protect the species and it’s environment


  1. Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program
  • joint initiative of range country governments, international agencies, civil society, and the private sector
  • Goal — secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its natural ecosystem.


  1. 2015 — International Year of the Snow Leopard



United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

  1. Established in 1972 — result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
  2. Headquarter — Nairobi, Kenya
  3. Agency of United Nations that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices
  4. Publishes Global environment outlook
  5. seven thematic areas of work:
  • climate change
  • disasters and conflicts
  • ecosystem management
  • environmental governance
  • chemicals and waste
  • resource efficiency
  • environment under review
  1. secretariats of multilateral environmental agreements
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity 
  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  • The Minamata Convention on Mercury
  • The Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions
  • The Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol
  • The Convention on Migratory Species – Bonn convention
  • The Carpathian Convention – 2003 — subregional treaty to foster the  sustainable development and the protection of the Carpathian region
  • The Bamako Convention – 1998 — treaty of African nations prohibiting the import into Africa of any hazardous (including radioactive) waste
  • The Tehran Convention — Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea,