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Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 25 : 18-25 February 2018

Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 25 : 18-25 February 2018

  1. ‘CO2 injection technology’


Under it, CO2 gas is injected with residual oil in the ageing field in which total oil production has been declining.

  • It reduces its viscosity and makes it easier to displace oil from the rock pores. CO2 gas also swells oil, thereby pushing it towards the producing well for extraction.
  • CO2-EOR works most commonly by injecting CO2 into already developed oil fields where it mixes with and “releases” the oil from the formation, thereby freeing it to move to production wells. CO2 that emerges with the oil is separated in above-ground facilities and re-injected into the formation.
  • CO2-EOR projects resemble a closed-loop system where the CO2 is injected, produces oil, is stored in the formation, or is recycled back into the injection well.

While the technology is a proven concept in the West specially the US and Canada, ONGC’s project would be the first large scale CO2-injected project in Asia. ONGC is planning to introduce CO2 injection technology in its Gandhar oil field in Gujarat. 

Its purpose is to recover extra 20 million barrels of crude oil under enhanced oil recovery (EOR) programme. EOR programme aims at recovering up to 20% of residual oil from ageing oil fields to improve India’s energy security.





  1. Floor Test and Composite Floor Test

What is floor test?

  • A chief minister appointed by the governor can be asked to prove his majority in case of doubt. In the 2016 elections, AIADMK won 134 out of 234 seats.
  • With absolute majority, there were no questions asked and AIADMK leader J Jayalalithaa became the chief minister and formed the government.
  • In situations where the majority can be questioned (for instance, when there is a coalition government), the governor may ask the chief minister to prove his/ majority in the House.
  • In that case, the chief minister has to move a vote of confidence and win a majority among those present and voting.

What is composite floor test?

  • If there is more than one person staking claim to form the government and the majority is not clear the governor may call for a special session to see who has the majority. Some legislators may be absent or choose not to vote.
  • The majority is then counted based on those present and voting. This can be done through a voice vote, where the legislators respond orally, or through a division vote.




  1. Spriulina


It represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals.

As an ecologically-sound, nutrient-rich, dietary supplement, spirulina is being investigated to address food security, malnutrition, and as dietary support in long-term space flight or Mars missions.

Its interest for food security is for lower land and water needs to produce protein and energy than required for livestock as meat sources.

Dried spirulina contains 5% water, 24% carbohydrates, 8% fat, and about 60% (51–71%) protein (table).

It is a complete protein source, containing all essential amino acids.

Spirulina thrives at a pH around 8.5 and above, which will get more alkaline, and a temperature around 30°C (86°F). They are able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source.

Source: Additional Research: Chapter on Nutrition: 6th Science NCERT  




  1. Benefits of Geotagging

It is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video various media such as video, websites, SMS messages etc and is a form of geospatial metadata.


This data usually consists of latitude and longitude coordinates, though they can also include altitude, bearing, distance, accuracy data, and place names, and perhaps a time stamp.

  • The geographical location data used in geotagging will, in almost every case, be derived from the global positioning system
  • Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-specific information from a device. For instance, someone can find images taken near a given location by entering latitude and longitude coordinates into a suitable image search engine. This also improves GIS based systems.
  • Geotagging has become a popular feature on several social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram.
  • Facebook users can geotag photos that can be added to the page of the location they are tagging.

Source: Additional Research

  1. New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
  • It is the Economic development program of the African Union
  • NEPAD was adopted in 2001.
  • NEPAD aims to provide an overarching vision and policy framework for accelerating economic co-operation and integration among African countries.
  • NEPAD’s four primary objectives are: to eradicate poverty, promote sustainable growth and development, integrate Africa in the world economy, and accelerate the empowerment of women.
  • It is based on underlying principles of a commitment to good governance, democracy, human rights and conflict resolution; and the recognition that maintenance of these standards is fundamental to the creation of an environment conducive to investment and long-term economic growth.
  • Partners include, inter alia, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and African Development Bank.

Source: Additional Research: past year UPSC papers