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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Sangai (brow-antlered deer or dancing deer or Eld’s deer ) and Wassenaar Arrangement






Sangai (brow-antlered deer or dancing deer or Eld’s deer ) and Wassenaar Arrangement


Sangai (brow-antlered deer or dancing deer or Eld’s deer )

  1. Endangered (EN) — IUCN.Sangai
  2. Endemic species found only in Manipur, India.
  3. State animal of Manipur
  4. Habitat:
  • Floating marshy grasslands, Phumids, of the Keibul Lamjao National Park, located in the southern parts of the Loktak Lake (largest freshwater lake in eastern India)
  • Phumdi — floating mass of entangled vegetation formed by the accumulation of organic debris and biomass with soil
  1. Threats
  • Shrinking habitat due to continuous inundation and flooding by high water caused as the result of artificial reservoir of the National Hydroelectric Power CorporationLoktak
  • Poaching
  1. Conservation
  • Schedule – I animal in wildlife (Protection) act, 1972
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park – Manipur
  1. Sangai & Manipur society
  • Sangai is interpreted as the binding soul between humans and the nature
  • Socially, the sangai is the symbol of a prized possession of the state.
  1. Name — sangai (sa“animal” and ngai “in awaiting”)
  • By nature, the deer, particularly the males, even when running for its life stops occasionally and looks back as if he is waiting for someone and hence the name
  1. Return of Sangai— documentary about Keibul Lamjao National Park and Sangai
  2. Sangai festival— annual cultural festival organised by Manipur Tourism Department

Wassenaar Arrangement

  1. Established in 1996Wassenaar Arrangement
  2. Headquarter — Vienna
  3. Multilateral export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
  4. Predecessor — Cold War-era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) — created to restrict exports to the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc
  5. Name — Wassenaar, a suburb of The Hague – place where the agreement to start such a multi-lateral cooperation was reached in 1995
  6. Participating states — 42 including India
  • All permanent members of UN Security Council except China are its members
  • Participating states of WA, through their national policies, seek to ensure that transfers (export) of arms and ammunition in Control list of WA do not contribute to development or enhancement of military capabilities undermining regional security.
  • Every six months member countries of WA exchange information on deliveries of conventional arms to non-WA members that fall under eight broad weapons categories.
  1. Goal — to “promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies”
  2. Importance of Wassanar group for India
  • Admitted in December, 2017
  • India will be able to more easily access dual use technologies and materials and military equipment that are proscribed for non-participating members. Such access to high technology, which will help address the demands of Indian space and defence sectors.
  • India will also be able to sell its nuclear reactors and other materials and equipment indigenously produced without attracting adverse reactions
  • Better position to collaborate with other countries in developing such capabilities
  • Enhance its credentials in the field of non-proliferation despite not being signatory to Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
  • WA membership is also expected to build up strong case for India’s entry into the 48-member NSG.
  • Help energy starved India to secure the supply of nuclear fuel more easily, since it has low reserves of uranium required for its civil nuclear energy programmes.


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