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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Red Panda  and Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)






Red Panda  and Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)


Red Panda

  1. Endangered– IUCN 
  2. State animal of Sikkim
  3. Native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.
  4. It is arboreal, feeds mainly on bamboo, but also eats eggs, birds, and insects
  5. It is a solitary animal, mainly active from dusk to dawn, and is largely sedentaryduring the day.
  6. Habitat
  • Red panda is endemi cto the temperate forests of the Himalayas, and ranges from the foothills of western Nepal to China in the east
  • India: the states of Sikkim, West Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh
  1. Threats
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation and habitat degradation due to commercial logging, expansion of agriculture,land use changes etc
  • Natural disasters include cyclones; landslides; floods; heavy snowfall and rainfall; bamboo flowering (which results in death of the plant and typically occurs synchronously across large areas); forest fires
  • Another reason for declining population is natural low birth rate (usually one single or twin birth per year), and a high death rate in the wild

Protectionred panda IAS

  • CITES — Appendix I

a) Protected areas

  • Kanchendzonga National Park (NP) — Sikkim
  • Neora Valley NP – West Bengal
  • Namdapha National Park – Arunachal Pradesh
  • Singalila National Park – West Bengal

b) Global Species Management Plan (GSMP) for Red Pandas held in zoos around the world — contribute both directly and indirectly to Red Panda conservation by: providing a genetically and demographically sustainable and behaviorally competent back-up population for the wild population; holding the potential to supply individuals for genetic or demographic supplementation  etc


Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)

  1. International & inter-governmental organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean
  2. Aim — strengthen regional cooperation and sustainable development within the Indian Ocean region
  3. Secretariat — Ebene,Mauritius
  4. Members – -21
  5. Origin
  • Originated during a visit by late President Nelson Mandela of South Africa to India in 1995.
  • Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius– 1995
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association (then known as the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation) – March 1997
  1. Indian Ocean Rim Initiative & Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of
  • Government
  • Business
  • Academia
  1. It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
  2. objectives
  • To promote sustainable growth and balanced development of the region and member states
  • To focus on those areas of economic cooperation which provide maximum opportunities for development, shared interest and mutual benefits
  • To promote liberalization, remove impediments and lower barriers towards a freer and enhanced flow of goods, services, investment, and technology within the Indian Ocean rim.
  1. Priority areas

a) Council of Ministers Meeting held in Tehran (2007) identified 6 priority areas for medium to long term association:

  • Maritime Security,
  • Trade and Investment facilitation,
  • fisheries management,
  • disaster risk reduction,
  • academic and scientific cooperation and
  • tourism promotion and cultural exchanges.

b) 11th COM meeting, in Bengaluru, India (2015 )re-invigorated priority areas list to add blue economy and women’s economic empowerment

  1. Structure

a) Council of (Foreign) Ministers (COM)

  • meets annually or more often, as collectively decided
  • formulates policy, reviews progress on co-operation and makes decisions on new areas of co-operation.
  • elects a Chair and a Vice Chair of the Association, each for a period of two years.

b) Committee of Senior Officials (CSO)

  • comprised of senior Government Officials of Member States which meets as often as collectively decided (but at least once a year).
  • It reviews the implementation of the decisions taken by the COM, 

c) Troika

  • consisting of the Chair, the Vice-Chair and the previous Chair.
  • It reports to the COM and the Member States on any important matters relating to the Association, including progress achieved, the establishment of additional mechanisms, policy direction, and the appointment, term of office, mandate and duties of the Secretary-General.