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PRELIMS BOOSTERS 2018: Lion-tailed Macaque and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)







Lion-tailed Macaque and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)


Lion-tailed Macaque

    1. Endangered – IUCN red listLion-tailed Macaque
    2. Habitat
    • Mainly diurnalarboreal, it prefers the upper canopy of primary tropical evergreen rainforest but may also be found in monsoon forest in hilly country and in disturbed forest.
    • It can be found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the western ghat region.
    1. Unlike other macaques, it avoids humans
    2. Threat
    • Habitat loss and degradation— due to deforestation for logging, conversion of forest to farmland. Logging leads to a scarcity of the fruit on which the monkeys feed, which is particularly devastating. Creation of exotic plantations such as tea, eucalyptus and coffee
    • Hunting — for food, medicinal uses
    • Pet trade
    1. Certain features of the reproductive biology and ecology of this species (such as large inter-birth periods, seasonal resource availability, and female competition for mating opportunities) combine to make it intrinsically rare in the wild.
    2. Conservation efforts
    • Appendix I of CITES
    • Schedule I, Part I, of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Protected areas

    • Kudremukh National Park — Karnatakaa
    • Periyar National Park — Kerala
    • Silent Valley National Park — Kerala
    • Shendurney Sanctuary — Kerala
    • Indira Gandhi Sanctuary — Tamil Nadu
    • Kalakkad Sanctuar — Tamil Nadu


International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Established as an autonomous organization in 1957

    1. Headquarter —  Vienna.
    2. Objective: promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
    3. Though independent of UN it reports to both the United Nations General Assemblyand Security Council
    4. Nobel Peace Prize in  2005


    1. Mission
    • Peaceful uses: Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by its member states,
    • Safeguards: Implementing safeguards to verify that nuclear energy is not used for military purposes, and
    • Nuclear safety: Promoting high standards for nuclear safety


    1. Board of Governors
    • 22 member states (must represent a stipulated geographic diversity) — elected by the General Conference (11 members every year) – 2 year term
    • At least 10 member states — nominated by the outgoing Board
    • Board members each receive one vote
    • Recommendations to the General Conference on IAEA activities and budget
    • Responsible for publishing IAEA standards
    • Responsible for making most of the policy of the IAEA
    • Appoints the Director General subject to General Conference approval


    1. General Conference 
    • 169 member states — one vote per member
    • Forum for debate on current issues and policies
    • Meets once a year
    • Approve the actions and budgets passed on from the Board of Governors
    • Approves the nominee for Director General


    1. Secretariat
    • The Secretariat is the professional and general service staff of the IAEA
    • Headed by the Director General
    • Responsible for enforcement of the actions passed by the Board of Governors and the General Conference
    • Selected by the Board and approved by the General Conference for renewable four-year terms.


    1. Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI), 2010 –To mobilise extrabudgetary contributions which supplement the Technical Cooperation Fund to support technical cooperation projects and other unfunded projects of the IAEA in the areas of peaceful application of nuclear technology


    1. Nuclear Data Services — nuclear data for energy and non-energy applications, as well as atomic data for fusion energy research


    1. Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Bank in Oskemen in Kazakhstan.


    1. Programs

a) Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT)

    • partnership with the WHO and other
    • Supports IAEA Member States to expand access to health technologies, build skills and mobilize resources to develop a complete range of quality, effective and sustainable cancer services.

b) Human Health Program

    • Support Member States in using nuclear techniques to prevent, diagnose and treat Non-communicable diseases
    • It provides a holistic approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of non-communicable diseases, covering four main support areas: nutrition; diagnosis and follow-up; radiation oncology and radiotherapy; and quality assurance.


c) IAEA Water Availability Enhancement Project

    • Helping Member States improve the long-term access to freshwater by using science-based, comprehensive assessments of national water resources.
    • Primary goal is to strengthen national capacities for collecting, managing and interpreting water resource data and to use advanced techniques to improve resource management. 

d) International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, 2000

    • It’s membership-based project
    • It supports its members on their long-term planning and collaboration on innovations in reactors, fuel cycles and institutional approaches that will promote the sustainable development of nuclear energy