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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 10

SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 10


1) Which of the following migratory birds is/are in critically endangered category of IUCN Red list?

  1. Pelican
  2. Siberian Crane
  3. Stork
  4. Flamingo
  5. Pintail Duck
  6. Curlew

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 2 only

b) 2 and 4 only

c) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in India and Nepal. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations. Their populations, particularly those in the western range, have declined drastically in the 20th century due to hunting along their migration routes and habitat degradation.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_crane

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_endangered_animals_in_India


2) Which of the following is/are correct about Sundari trees?

  1. Ethanol is extracted from these trees.
  2. The trees are grown commercially in plantations.
  3. The trees exhibit antimicrobial characteristics.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) None

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Uses of Sundari Trees:

The timber has many uses; in bridge building, house construction, boat building and joinery, as utility poles and tool handles, making hardboard and as firewood.

The tree is grown commercially in plantations.

The bark of H. fomes is rich in procyanidins. The ethanol extract has been shown to have antioxidant properties.

It also shows antimicrobial activities against Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is non-toxic in brine shrimp toxicity tests.

All the statements are correct.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heritiera_fomes


3) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Mountain Vegetation?

  1. At a height between 1500m and 2500m most of the trees are conical shape.
  2. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Statement 1 : At a height between 1500m and 2500m there is high snowfall causing snow to snow accumulate on branches and leaves or needles.  The conical shape of conifer trees (mountain) prevents as much accumulation of snow as there would be on a wider shaped tree.  The conical shape of the tree also helps to get the snow to fall off the tree quickly and to get the sunlight. Hence statement 1 is correct

Statement 2 : The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants.

All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. Hence statement 2 is correct. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs.


4) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Tropical Rain Forests?

  1. The Species of trees in these forests do not shed their leaves.
  2. Mahogany, ebony, teak and shisham are the important trees found in these forests.
  3. These forests are found throughout Western Ghats.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) None

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Statement 1 is incorrect because the trees in Tropical Rain Forests shed their leaves at different times of the year. Therefore, they always appear green.

Statement 2 is incorrect because teak and shisham are found in tropical deciduous forests.

Statement 3 is also incorrect because these forests are found in a narrow strip of the Western slope of Western Ghats.

Source:

NCERT Class VI Geography.


5) Which of the following statements is/are correct about the cold desert – Ladakh?

  1. The air at the altitude of Ladakh is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely.
  2. A person may suffer both sunstroke and frost bite at the same time.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

The altitude in Ladakh varies from about 3000m in Kargil to more than 8,000m in the Karakoram. Due to its high altitude, the climate is extremely cold and dry. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely. Hence Statement 1 in correct

The day temperatures in summer are just above zero degree and the night temperatures well below –30°C. It is freezing cold in the winters when the temperatures may remain below –40°C for most of the time. As it lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, there is little rainfall, as low as 10 cm every year. The area experiences freezing winds and burning hot sunlight. One will be surprised to know that if you sit in the sun with your feet in the shade, you may suffer from both sunstroke and frost bite at the same time. Hence Statement 2 is correct

 

                Source:

                NCERT Geography Class VII chapter 10.


6) For which of the following products the Tibetan antelope is hunted?

      (a) Skin

      (b) wool

      (c) Horns

      (d) Claws

       Solution: b

      Explanation:

In recent years, they have become endangered due to poaching. They are hunted for their soft and warm wool which is usually obtained after death. This wool is known as shahtoosh and is used to weave shawls. At present, international trade in their products is strictly prohibited. Recently, its IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ranking was raised to Near Threatened.

Source:

NCERT Class VI chapter 8.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_antelope


7) Which of the statements is/are correct about the areas where the warm and cold currents meet?

  1. They provide the best fishing grounds of the world.
  2. They make the navigation easy.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

                Warm currents bring about warm temperature over land surface. The areas where the warm and cold currents meet provide the best fishing grounds of the world. Seas around Japan and the eastern coast of North America are such examples.

So Statement 1 is correct.

The areas where a warm and cold current meet also experience foggy weather making it difficult for navigation.

So Statement 2 is incorrect.

Source:

NCERT Geography VII Chapter 5.


8) Which of the statements is/are correct about Mediterranean Vegetation?

  1. They are found in the West and South – West margins of the continents.
  2. The natural vegetation was removed to cultivate citrus fruits.
  3. Rich wildlife is found in this vegetation.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

The west and south west margins of the continents have Mediterranean vegetation is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia, hence the name. So statement 1 is correct

This kind of vegetation is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the USA, south west Africa, south western South America and South west Australia. These regions are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.

Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to. So statement 2 is correct.

There isn’t much wildlife here.

Statement 3 is incorrect.

Source:

NCERT Class VII Chapter 6.


9)Which of the following grasslands is called “sea of grass”?

        (a) Pampas

        (b) Prairies

        (c) Veld

        (d) Steppes

        Solution: b

       Answer Justification:

The temperate grasslands of North America are known as the Prairies. It is a region of flat, gently sloping or hilly land. For the most part, prairies are treeless but, near the low lying plains, flanking river valleys, woodlands can be found. Tall grass, up to two metres high, dominates, the landscape. It is actually a “sea of grass.”

Source:

NCERT Geography Class VII Chapter 9.


10) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Sahara Desert?

  1. A lush green plain once has changed now to a hot and dry region owing to climate change
  2. The people of Sahara Desert wear heavy robes as protection against dust storms and hot winds.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

You will be surprised to know that present day Sahara once used to be a lush green plain. Cave paintings in Sahara desert show that there used to be rivers with crocodiles. Elephants, lions, giraffes, ostriches, sheep, cattle and goats were common animals. But the change in climate has changed it to a very hot and dry region. So statement 1 is correct.

People of Sahara:

The Sahara desert despite its harsh climate has been inhabited by various groups of people, who pursue different activities. Among them are the Bedouins and Tuaregs. These groups are nomadic tribes rearing livestock such as goats, sheep, camels and horses. These animals provide them with milk, hides from which they make leather for belts, slippers, water bottles; hair is used for mats, carpets, clothes and blankets. They wear heavy robes as protection against dust storms and hot winds. So statement 2 is correct

Source:

NCERT Geography class VII chapter 10.


11) To which state do the following Important Bird Areas belong?

  1. Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary.
  3. Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary

Options:

a) Gujarat

b) Maharashtra

c) Karnataka

d) Goa

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Important Bird Areas

  • Important for the conservation of birdpopulations
  • identified by BirdLife International
  • These sites are small enough to be entirely conserved and differ in their character, habitat or ornithological importance from the surrounding habitat.

From the table of Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in India

 

 

S. No.

Site Name PA Status IBA Criteria Final Code
35 BhagwanMahavir Wildlife Sanctuary (including Molem) WLS A1, A2, A3 IN174

               

From the table of Potential Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in India

S. No Site Name State Potential or New IBAs Codes
23 Bondla Goa IN-GA-05
25 Netravali Goa IN-GA-07

 

Source:

http://wiienvis.nic.in/Database/IBA_8463.aspx


12) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Nilgiri Tahr?

  1. It is endemic to only Nilgiri Hills.
  2. Eravikulam National Park has the highest population of Nilgiri Tahr.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

The Nilgiri tahr inhabits the open montane grassland habitats at elevations from 1200 to 2600 m (generally above 2000 m) of the South Western Ghats.

Their range extends over 400 km from north to south.

Eravikulam National Park is home to the largest population.

Hence Statement 2 is correct.

The other significant concentration is in the Nilgiri Hills, with smaller populations in the Anamalai Hills, Periyar National Park, Palni Hills and other pockets in the Western Ghats south of Eravikulam, almost to India’s southern tip.

Hence Statement 1 is incorrect as the species’ habitat  is spread outside Nilgiri hills also.

                Source:

                https://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/priority_species/threatened_species/nilgiri_tahr2/

 


13) Which of the following statements is/are correct about one horned rhinoceros?

  1. They are found in parts of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Assam.
  2. They are not the largest of the Asian Rhinos.
  3. Indian Rhino Vision (IRV)-2020 aims to relocate the rhinos from one protected area to other.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

The preferred habitat of an Indian rhinoceros is alluvial flood plains and areas containing tall grasslands along the foothills of the Himalayas. Formerly, extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains, today the species is restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam. In India, rhinos are mainly found in Kaziranga NP, Pobitara WLS, Orang NP, Manas NP in Assam, Jaldapara NP and Garumara NP in West Bengal and Dudhwa TR in Uttar Pradesh.

https://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/priority_species/greater_one_horned_rhino/about_one_horned_rhino/

The one horned rhinoceros of Asia is the second largest of the five species of rhino. The African whiterhino is the largest and the African black rhino is third, followed by the Sumatran rhino and the Javanese rhino.

Hence Statement 2 in incorrect.

http://factsanddetails.com/asian/cat68/sub433/item2458.html

Rhino translocations began in April 2008, under IRV 2020 moved 18 Indian rhinos from Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary and Kaziranga National Park to Manas National. An additional eight rhinos were moved to Manas by the Centre for Wildlife Rehabilitation and Conservation.  

https://rhinos.org/where-we-work/indian-rhino-vision-2020/


14) Which of the following species find place in both in IUCN Red List-Critically Endangered category and Appendix-I of CITES?

  1. White bellied heron
  2. Jerdon’s Courser
  3. Siberian White crane
  4. Pink headed duck

 

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 3 and 4 only

c) 1, 2, 3 and 4

d) None

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

The critically endangered species of IUCN Red List face an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future.

CITES Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

Source:

Extensive list:

http://wiienvis.nic.in/Database/ScheduleSpeciesDatabase_7969.aspx


15) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Chilka lake?

  1. Chilika was designated as the 1st “Ramsar Site” of India.
  2. Chilika was never included in the Montreux Record.
  3. Chilka lake is brackish in nature with estuarine character.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) None

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Though Keoldeo National Park and Chilika Lake were designated the status of Ramsar site on the same day but Chilka lake is the first Ramsar Site.

Hence Statement 1 is correct.

The lake was included in the Montreux Record (Threatened list) in 1993 by Ramsar Secretariat due to the change in the ecological character of the lake ecosystem. Susequently, however, due to successful restoration of the lake ecosystem by Chilika Development Authority it was removed from the Montreux Record in 2002 (first site from Asia).

Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.

Chilika Lake is the largest brackish water lake with estuarine character that sprawls along the east coast of India. It is considered to be the largest lagoon in India and counted amongst the largest lagoons in the world. The lake is a unique habitat that comprises of Marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystem and supports any biodiversity comprising of birds and aquatic animals.

Hence Statement 3 is correct.

Source:        

http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5896/


16) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Hornbill?

  1. Hornbill is found in North eastern region and in a few forest areas in the Western Ghats and in the forests along the Himalayas of India.
  2. Hornbill festival is celebrated to revive, protect and sustain the population of Hornbills.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

Great hornbills are found in the forests of India, Bhutan, Nepal, Mainland Southeast Asia and Indonesian Island of Sumatra and North eastern region of India. The distribution of the species is fragmented over its range in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. In the subcontinent they are found in a few forest areas in the Western Ghats and in the forests along the Himalayas. Their distribution extends into Thailand, Burma, Malaya, and Sumatra. A small feral population is found in Singapore. Their habitat is dense old growth (unlogged) forests in hilly regions. They appear to be dependent on large stretches of forest, unlike many of the smaller hornbills.

Hence Statement 1 is correct.

Tribal peoples threaten the great Indian hornbill by hunting it for its various parts. The beaks and head are used in charms and the flesh is believed to be medicinal. Young birds are considered a delicacy.

The Hornbill Festival is a celebration held every year from 1 – 10 December, in Nagaland to revive, protect, sustain, and promote the richness of the Naga heritage and traditions.

Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.


17) According to the Convention for Biological Diversity which of the following statements is/are correct about Invasive alien species?

  1. These species are the largest cause of biodiversity loss in the world.
  2. These species are a greater threat to native biodiversity than pollution, harvest, and disease combined.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

According to the Convention for Biological Diversity, invasive alien species are the second largest cause of biodiversity loss in the world (Hence Statement 1 in incorrect) and impose high costs to agriculture, forestry, and aquatic ecosystems. In fact, introduced species are a greater threat to native biodiversity than pollution, harvest, and disease combined. (Hence Statement 2 is correct)

Source:

http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/Database/Invasive_Alien_species_15896.aspx


18) As per the provisions of Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It prohibits picking and uprooting of all plants.
  2. Cultivation of any plant does not need licence.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

As per the provisions of the act. (Clause wise)

17A. Prohibition of picking, uprooting, etc., of specified plants.

No person shall –

(a) willfully pick, uproot, damage destroy, acquire or collect any specified plant from any forest land and area specified, by notification, by the Central Government, (Hence Statement 1 in incorrect)

(b) possess, sell, other for sale, or transfer by way of gift or otherwise, or transport any specified plant, whether alive or dead, or part or derivative thereof.

17C. Cultivation of specified plants without licence prohibited.

No person shall cultivate a specified plant except under, and in accordance with a licence granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf. (Hence Statement 2 in incorrect)

http://envfor.nic.in/legis/wildlife/wildlife1c3a.pdf


19) Consider the following statements regarding an animal.

  1. The conservation status of it has been improved from “endangered” to “vulnerable”.
  2. Mostly feed on wild animals, but will also prey on livestock.
  3. Its protection is one of the key components of Project SECURE Himalayas.

Above statements are referring to which animal?

a) Polar Bear

b) White Tiger

c) Snow Leopard

d) Sloth Bear

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

The Snow Leopard is assessed as Vulnerable because the global population is estimated to number more than 2,500 but fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, and there is an estimated and projected decline of at least 10% over 22.62 years (3 generations).

Statement 1 is about Snow Leopard.

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22732/0

For statements 2 and 3, refer Insights Exclusive Environment module.


20) Which of the following statements is/are correct about vermins in India?

  1. The Central Government can declare any wild animal to be vermin.
  2. Declaration of vermin is done for specific area.
  3. Once a vermin is declared, it will remain vermin forever.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) None

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

The Central Government] may by notification, declare any wild animal other than those specified in Sch. I and part 11 of Sch H to be vermin for any area and for such period as may be specified therein and so long as such notification is in force, such wild animal shall be deemed to have been included in Sch.V.


21) With reference to the proposed Financial Data Management Centre (FDMC), consider the following statements:

 

  1. It seeks to collect financial data from both the regulators and the regulated entities
  2. As of now the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the sole collector and custodian of financial data

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: c)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/11/insights-daily-current-affairs-11-aug-2017/

 

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) would soon no longer be the sole collector and custodian of financial data as the Law Ministry has approved a revised Cabinet proposal on the creation of the Financial Data Management Centre (FDMC) that would subsequently collect raw data directly.

 

“FDMC will collect data in electronic format from the (financial) regulators. Over time, it will gradually build capacity to collect data from the regulated entities i.e. Financial Service Providers,” says the revised proposal which accepts that the data warehouse could be set up only through an Act.

 

Initially, FDMC was to be a non-statutory body to collect data from financial sector regulators, standardise and analyse them on issues relating to financial stability for onward decisions by the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC). It was also to provide regular access to the data. However, the Department of Legal Affairs turned down the initial Cabinet proposal saying that a non-statutory FMDC would find it difficult to acquire data from the regulators, majority of which were statutory.

 

First statement is correct because it says “IT SEEKS to…”


22) Consider the following statements:

 

  1. The average farm size in India is small, and declining since 1970-71
  2. As per 2011 agriculture census, the average size of the holding has been estimated as 1.15 hectare

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: c)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/12/insights-daily-current-affairs-12-aug-2017/

 

 

Highlights of Agriculture Census 2010-11

 

 

Department of Agriculture, Cooperation& Farmers Welfare has released Agriculture Census 2010-11(Phase-II).  Highlights of the Census are:

Highlights

 

As per Agriculture Census 2010-11,

  • Total number of operational holdings were estimated as 138.35 million.
  • The total operated area was 159.59 million hectare.
  • The average size of the holding has been estimated as 1.15 hectare. The average size of holdings has shown a steady declining trend over various Agriculture Censuses since, 1970-71.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=132799

 

http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/nearly-70-percent-of-indian-farms-are-very-small-census-shows-115120901080_1.html


 

23) With reference to Preterm birth, consider the following statements:

 

  1. Preterm is defined as babies born alive before 28 weeks of pregnancy are completed
  2. Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: b)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/19/insights-daily-current-affairs-19-aug-2017/

 

 

Statement-1: We have changed the number here, so that you remember it well (it’s an important fact to remember).

 

Preterm is defined as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. There are sub-categories of preterm birth, based on gestational age:

  • extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks)
  • very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)
  • moderate to late preterm (32 to 37 weeks).

Induction or caesarean birth should not be planned before 39 completed weeks unless medically indicated.

Statement- 2:

 

  • Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation), and this number is rising.
  • Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age, responsible for approximately 1 million deaths in 2015 (1).
  • Three-quarters of these deaths could be prevented with current, cost-effective interventions.
  • Across 184 countries, the rate of preterm birth ranges from 5% to 18% of babies born.

24) Melbourne has been named ‘The World’s Most Liveable City’ for the seventh consecutive year by the annual Global Liveability Index. This Index is published by the

 

a) UN Habitat

b) UNESCO

c) Economist Intelligence Unit

d) WEF

 

Solution: c)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/17/insights-daily-current-affairs-17-aug-2017/

 

 

Melbourne has been named ‘The World’s Most Liveable City’ for the seventh consecutive year by the annual Economist Intelligence Unit’s (EIU) Global Liveability Index.

 

Background:

The EIU’s Liveability Ranking assesses living conditions in 140 cities across the globe by assigning a rating across five broad categories.

  • The rating quantifies the challenges that might be presented to an individual’s lifestyle in any given location, and allows for direct comparison between locations.
  • Every city is assigned a rating of relative comfort for over 30 qualitative and quantitative factors across five broad categories – stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education and infrastructure.

 

Top five most liveable cities:

  • Melbourne
  • Vienna
  • Vancouver
  • Toronto
  • Adelaide, Calgary.

 

25) Which of the following country is/are NOT part of the proposed TAPI gas pipeline?

 

  1. Turkmenistan
  2. Tajikistan
  3. Iran
  4. Azerbaijan
  5. Afghanistan

Select the correct answer using codes below:

a) 1 and 3 Only

b) 1, 3 and 4 Only

c) 1,2 and 4 Only

d) 2,3 and 4 Only

 

Solution: d)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/16/insights-daily-current-affairs-16-aug-2017/

 

 

The Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline (TAPI), also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline, is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Galkynysh – TAPI Pipeline Company Limited [1][2] with participation of the Asian Development Bank.[3] The pipeline will transport natural gas from the Galkynysh Gas Field in Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and then to India.[4] Construction on the project started in Turkmenistan on December 13th, 2015. The pipeline is expected to be operational by 2019.[3] The abbreviation TAPI comes from the first letters of those countries. Proponents of the project see it as a modern continuation of the Silk Road.