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PRELIMS BOOSTERS 2018: Gharial (Gavial or fish eating crocodile) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)







Gharial (Gavial or fish eating crocodile) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)


Gharial (Gavial or fish eating crocodile)

  1. Critically Endangered— IUCN Red List.Gharial (Gavial or fish eating crocodile)
  2. The male gharial has a distinctive boss at the end of the snout, which resembles an earthenware pot known in Hindias  Hence the name.
  3. Habitat — foremost flowing rivers with high sand banks that they use for basking and building nests
  • Gharials once inhabited all the major river systems of the Indian Subcontinent, from the Irrawaddy Riverin the east to the Indus River in the west. Their distribution is now limited to only 2% of their former range
  • India: Girwa River, Chambal River, Ken River, Son River, Mahanadi River, Ramganga River
  • Nepal: Rapti-Narayani River
  1. Threats
  • Hunting for skins, trophies and indigenous medicine, and their eggs collected for consumption
  • Decrease of riverine habitat as dams, barrages, irrigation canals and artificial embankments were built; siltation and sand-mining changed river courses
  • Riparian agriculture and grazing by livestock disrupts gharial behaviour and may even force local populations to desert the area
  • Depletion of fish resources
  • entanglement in fishing nets
  1. Conservation
  • Shedule 1 species under Indian wildlife act, 1972
  • Project Crocodile began in 1975 (Government of India+ United Nations Development Fund + Food and Agriculture Organization) —  intensive captive breeding and rearing program
  • Protected areas
  1. National Chambal Sanctuary
  2. Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary .


World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

  1. Established – 1967
  2. Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland
  3. Predecessor organization — United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property  established in 1893 to administer the 
  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 188 — applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including patents, trademarks, industrial designs, utility models, service marks, trade names, geographical indications and the repression of unfair competition.
  • Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886 — protection of works and the rights of their authors
  1. Membership: 191 member states
  2. Global forum for intellectual property services, policy, information and cooperation.
  3. self-funding agency
  4. specialized agency of the UN (1974)
  5. WIPOneta global information network. It seeks to link over 300 IP offices in all WIPO Member States
  6. WIPO Lexonline database of national legislation of the member States of WIPO, WTO and UN and international treaties in the field of intellectual property and international treaties related to intellectual property
  7. Article 6ter of the Paris Convention — protects the flags and emblems of states that are party to the Paris Convention, as well as the names and emblems of international intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) against unauthorized registration and use as trademarks.
  8. WIPO Standards — It provides a single, common framework for working with the information contained within industrial property documents. They cover patents, trademarks, and industrial designs and are used at all stages of the industrial property prosecution process (filing, examination, publication, grant, etc.), as well as for data dissemination.
  9. Reports
  • World Intellectual Property Report (biennial)
  • Patent Landscape Reports 
  • World Intellectual Property Indicators
  1. IP protection systems – Enables the inventor to simultaneously seek protection for an invention in a very large number of countries by filing single application
  • PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty) – The International Patent System
  • Madrid System – The International Trademark System (116 countries)
  • Hague system — The International Industrial design system
  • Lisbon System – The International System of Appellations of Origin
  1. Budapest System – The International Microorganism Deposit System (patents involving biological material)
  2. WIPO administered Treaties
  • Beijing Treaty, 2012 — IP in Respect of Audiovisual Performances
  • Marrakesh Treaty — Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired or Otherwise Print Disabled
  • Washington Treaty, 1989 – IP in Respect of Integrated Circuits
  • Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks, 2006 —  establishes common standards for procedural aspects of trademark registration and licensing.
  • Trademark Law Treaty (TLT) – to standardize and streamline national and regional trademark registration procedures
  • Patent Law Treaty (PLT) 2000 — harmonizing and streamlining formal procedures with respect to national and regional patent applications and patents and making such procedures more user friendly.
  • Nairobi Treaty — Protection of the Olympic Symbol – five interlaced rings – against use for commercial purposes (in advertisements, on goods, as a mark, etc.) without the authorization of the International Olympic Committee.
  1. WIPO conventions
  • Geneva Phonograms Convention 1971 — Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms (sound recordings)
  • Rome Convention, 1961 — Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (administered UNESCO+ ILO + WIPO)
  • Brussels Convention (Satellites Convention ) — provides for the obligation of each Contracting State to take adequate measures to prevent the unauthorized distribution on or from its territory of any programme-carrying signal transmitted by satellite.

14. WIPO agreements on IP classification

  1. Strasbourg Agreement, 1971– Concerns with the International Patent Classification. It establishes a common classification for patentsfor invention, inventors’ certificates, utility models and utility certificates, known as the “IPC”
  2. Nice Agreement – Concerns with the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks
  3. Locarno Agreement — Establishes an International Classification for Industrial Designs
  4. Vienna Agreement — Establishes an International Classification of the Figurative Elements of Marks