Print Friendly, PDF & Email

PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Olive Ridley Turtle and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

.

Insights IAS Prelims Boosters – 2018

ARCHIVES

 

Olive Ridley Turtle

&

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

 


Olive Ridley Turtle


 

  1. Vulnerable — IUCN Red listolive ridley turtle
  2. Habitatwarm and tropical waters of primarily in the Pacific, Indian Ocean and  Atlantic ocean.
  3. Gets name from its olive colored carapace, which is heart-shaped and rounded
  4. Arribadassynchronized nesting in mass numbers,
  5. Operation Olivia — Olive Ridely Turtle protection program undertaken byIndian Coast Guard
  6. mating and breeding season — winter 
  7. mostly carnivorous, feeding on such creatures as jellyfish, snails, crabs, and shrimp. They will occasionally eat algae and seaweed
  8. Threats
  • Poaching for their meat, shell and leather, and their eggs
  • Pet trading
  • Accidental killing of adult turtles through entanglement in trawl nets and gill nets due to uncontrolled fishing during their mating season around nesting beaches
  • Development and exploitation of nesting beaches for ports, and tourist centres
  • Predators like feral dogs and pigs, ghost crabs, snakes etc
  • Light pollution
  • Ingestion of marine debris that causes perforation of the digestive system and exposure to chemicals and hence death.
  1. Nesting sites in India
  • Hope Island of Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andra Pradesh)
  • Gahirmatha  beach (Odisha)
  • Astaranga coast(Odisha)
  • Beach of Rushikulya River
  • Devi River mouth

olive ridley turtle locations, olive ridley turtle

 

olive ridley


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)


  1. Founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade
  • Headquarter — Paris, France

2. Origin

  • Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was founded in 1948 to help administer the Marshall Plan
  • In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states
  • Intergovernmental economic organisation
  • Official United Nations observer
  • It works through consensusto develop policy recommendations and other “soft law” instruments to encourage policy reform in member countries

3. Membership

  • Current -35 members
  • India is not a member but key partner (The countries which are invited for annual ministerial conference. Other key partners are – Brazil, China, Indonesia and South Africa )
  • It is forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracyand the market economy
  • Most OECD members are high-income economieswith a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries
  • It provides a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members.

4. Resources — funded by contributions from member states at varying rates

5. Governance

  • OECD Council — provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation. Each member country is represented.
  • OECD Substantive Committees — oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on)
  • OECD Secretariat — led by the Secretary-General provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees

6. Special bodies and entities

  • International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport)
  • International Energy Agency
  • Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG)
  • Trade Union Advisory Committee(TUAC)

 

7PISA — Regular assessment of the performance of educational systems

oecd PISA

8. Publications

  • OECD Economic survey of India
  • Government at a Glance
  • Education at a Glance
  • Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026 (in association with FAO)
  • Multilateral Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information (MCAA) — multilateral convention on administrative assistance in taxation matters
  • How migrants can contribute to developing countries economies
  • Employment Protection Index
  • Your Better Life Index