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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 MARCH 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 MARCH 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India; Role of women

1) How can the obsession for male children can be diluted in India, or in South Asia? Are there any lessons to be learnt from progressive Asian countries? Examine. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Background:-

  • In China and India alone, an estimated 2,000,000 baby girls go “missing” each year. They are selectively aborted, killed as newborns, or abandoned and left to die. Neighbouring countries with similar cultural traditions, such as South Korea and Nepal, have also faced this problem.

How to dilute this trend:-

  • Raise the economic value and prospects of women by subsidizing female education and promoting the role of women in society.
    • Daughters and wives who earn good salaries are valued by their natal and marital families, and have more to aspire to than being the mothers of sons. This must happen society-wide, not just in higher castes or wealthier groups.
  • Change and enforce laws on property ownership and inheritance that discriminate against wives, daughters and granddaughters
  • Challenge, where possible, burial and worship customs that require the agency of sons or male relatives.
  • Educate society to warn of the dangers of male-biased sex ratios, the shortage of brides and the consequences of hypergyny.
  • Reduce the dependence of aging parents on sons by building retirement savings and old age support, and by making it easier for daughters to support parents equally.
  • Strictly enforce laws forbidding sex selective abortion and IVF-based sex selection.
  • In India, there is a more pressing need than ever to strictly enforce the ban on dowries or dowry-like payments across society, reducing the economic burden of having daughters as well as the incentive for the wealthiest and most powerful families to raise the intensity of hypergyny.
  • Encourage girl oriented programmes:-
    • Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao with Sukanya Samriddhi yojana is a positive initiative to improve girl child delivery and education through financial incentives.
  • Teachers and parents need to be sure of treating boy and girl equally when they are children onwards as attitudes are formed at a very early

Lessons from other countries :-

  • Lessons from other Asian countries:-
    • Greater education and workforce participation for women
    • Parents accumulating significant savings for old age
    • Improvements in the legal status of women (greater autonomy, recognizing their property rights, rights to head their own households)
  • South Korea:-
    • These changes included a strictly-enforced 1987 government ban on sex-selective abortion 
    • The ‘Love your Daughter’ public awareness campaign warning of the dangers of biased sex ratios and the shortage of women.
    • Broader access to old age security, better prosecution of violators of laws against sex determination and sex-selective abortions
    • Better enforced equal inheritance laws
    • Cultural inducements such as allowing parents to choose either maternal or paternal surnames for their children seem to have all contributed not only to improving the status of daughters but also to lowering the value of sons.
    • In turn, these measures have made women and families more indifferent to the sex of their children.
  • As capitalism booms, some sons have abandoned the custom of living with and caring for their elderly parents, who are now more likely to turn to their daughters for old-age care.

Conclusion:-

  • The South Korean experience shows that improvements in the social status and earning potential of women can have a profoundly positive effect on the birth ratio. It can actually prevent female infanticide.

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues 

2) The Revolt of 1857 was a pure historical tragedy. Comment. (250 Words)

Bipan Chandra, India’s Struggle for Independence, Chapter – 1

 

Background:-

  • The British, under the East India Company’s rule disrupted the whole economic order of India by draining Indian wealth, disrupting the traditional land system they destroyed the relationship between sectors of the Indian economy.
  • Such unprecedented destruction of a whole economic order and of every class within it could not but produce a great social upheaval and that was the national uprising of 1857. The all-destructive British policy produced a broad popular rebellion against its rule.

 

Problems faced by the revolt which make people consider it a failure are:-

  • There were some constraints faced by the revolt in terms of
    • No quick system of communication leading to lack of coordination
    • Lack of broader goal of independence and political vision
    • Not assessing the strength of British
    • Lack of arms and ammunition
    • Lack of spread across the nation
    • Limited support from multiple sectors in the society like some intelligentsia actively supported British
  • For instance apart from some honourable exceptions like the Rani of Jhansi, Kunwar Singh and Maulvi Ahmadullah, the rebels were poorly served by their leaders. Most of them failed to realize the significance of the Revolt and simply did not do enough.

It cannot be considered a pure historical tragedy because of the following reasons:-

 

  • If the importance of a historical event is not limited to its immediate achievements the Revolt of 1857 was not a pure historical tragedy. It served a grand purpose: a source of inspiration for the national liberation movement which later achieved what the Revolt could not.
  • The outbreak of 1857 is the first great and direct challenge to the British rule in India, on an extensive scale. As such it inspired the genuine national movement for the freedom of India from British yoke which started half a century later. 
  • Despite the sepoys limitations, their effort to liberate the country was a patriotic act, and a progressive step. They showed exemplary courage, dedication and commitment. Thousands of men courted death.
  • The Indian people got that experience which enabled them to build the modern Indian national movement on new foundations and with new ideas, and the lessons of 1857 proved inestimable.
  • After the revolt British changed some of their administrative policies and tried to focus on divide and rule ,appeasing some communities like princes, muslims etc

Conclusion:-

  • The memory of the revolt of 1857, distorted but hallowed with sanctity, perhaps did more damage to the cause of the British rule in India than the Revolt itself

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

3) What are the lessons to be learnt from the Facebook data compromise? What is India doing in this regard? Examine. (250 Words)

Livemint

Background:-

  • Both Facebook and WhatsApp have more than 200 million active users in India, with India recently surpassing the United States in terms of the number of Facebook users.
  • Data-colonising companies like these use the collected information in myriad ways. Individuals have limited control over how data collected from them are used; in many cases, they do not even have undisputed ownership of their own personal information. Further, the companies databases are also under constant risk of cyberattacks showing data protection is very important.

Lessons to be learnt:-

  • Users:-
    • can definitely take control of privacy settings though disabling all platform apps (like Farmville, Twitter, or Instagram) .This will mean that users will not be able to log into sites using your Facebook login.
    • Users need to read the terms and conditions of the apps carefully before downloading.
  • Technology giants:-
    • The lesson is that tech giants like Facebook need to be more transparent about what data they collect, how they collect it and who they share it with.
    • They need to be more selective and they need clear processes in allowing third parties to use data
    • Tech companies can and should do more to protect users, including giving users far more control over what data is collected and how that data is used.
  • Governments:-
    • India needs a separate Privacy Act. The Right to Privacy, as enshrined in the Constitution, does not suffice when it comes to information security.
    • India also lacks a comprehensive policy on data protection or online security as the Indian Information Technology Act (2008) or amended rules in 2011 are not adequate. It is thus necessary to make a comprehensive law to adequately protect personal data in all its dimensions and to ensure an effective enforcement machinery for the same.
    • India needs to learn from the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which protects and empowers all EU citizens data privacy and  reshapes the way organizations across the region approach data privacy.
      • Such regulations could make it more difficult for organisations to collect data from users and customers, and to use it to target customers through third-party platforms 
    • Allow companies to pursue independent data protection policies (guided by baseline norms), but monitor their enforcement through a national, multi-stakeholder agency. There is precedent for such an institution: the United States Federal Trade Commission performs such a role, 
    • Data localisation:-
      • Encourage Indian industries to be able to build and retain data within our boundaries. In the short term, India should also create a policy framework that encourages overseas multinationals such as Google and Amazon to build large data centres in India and to retain the bulk of raw data collected in India within national geographical boundaries.
    • Should also build research and development activities in Big Data Science and data centre technology at our academic and research institutions 

India’s actions :-

  • The government set up a committee chaired by B.N. Srikrishna, to draw up a draft Data Protection Bill. The Bill, if made law, will be India’s first exclusive statute providing protection to online users’ personal data from breach by state and non-state players.
  • Government is cognisant of the growing importance of data protection in India. The need to ensure growth of the digital economy while keeping personal data of citizens secure and protected is of utmost importance.
  • Justice Shah group had emphasised on taking the informed and individual consent of users before the collection of their personal data.
    • It had proposed giving users prior notice of information practices, providing them with choices, and collection of only limited data necessary for the purpose for which it is collected. If there is a change of purpose, it must be notified to the individual.

Conclusion:-

  • Unless India evolves appropriate policies to counter the side effects of the Digital Plan, this could also lead to the unforeseen eColonisation of India.

Topic:Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability; functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies. 

4) In the light of the fact where social media such as Facebook influencing electoral outcomes, what challenges does this issue pose to the Election Commission and other institutions that have the responsibility to conduct free and fair elections? Discuss. (250 Words)

IDSA

Background:-

  • Cyber means of intervention appear to be becoming an inevitable part of the electoral process. The Cambridge Analytica incident proves that India is no exception to this trend. 
  • The Election Commission has partnered with Facebook  three times over the last year to encourage the enrolment of young voters. But the recent Facebook Cambridge analytica issue is adding challenges to EC.

Challenges posed to EC:-

  • News and online content over digital platforms can spread at lightning speed, without paying heed to the credibility or authenticity of the source.
  • Voter behaviour distorted :-
    • The election commission was worried about the data harvesting allegations in US elections as it can affect the election arena in an adverse manner, like public opinion being moulded.
  • The digital platforms are also accused of using shell companies, sex workers, fake news and bribes to sway election outcomes in several countries, according to a report by the Channel4News.
  • Fake news is the emerging challenge in the electoral arena and Election Commission .
  • The data shared by users on Social Media Platforms such as occupation, interest, hobbies is captured and used for Commercial Purpose by Some Firms.
  • Model Code of Conduct of the ECI is not equipped to deal with social media yet.
  • Also, the Law and Order Enforcement agencies like Police, cyber force don’t possess the required operational autonomy and skills to deal with digital criminalization of politics.
  • Indian political parties are also associated with such organisations. This adds a new challenge to EC to ensure fair elections .
  • India is one of the  countries vulnerable to cyber attacks and cyber hacks can be made in public institutions like EC which can influence the election results 

 

Way forward:-

  • The government set up a committee chaired by B.N. Srikrishna, to draw up a draft Data Protection Bill. The Bill, if made law, will be India’s first exclusive statute providing protection to online users’ personal data from breach by state and non-state players.
  • Government is cognisant of the growing importance of data protection in India. The need to ensure growth of the digital economy while keeping personal data of citizens secure and protected is of utmost importance.
  • India also lacks a comprehensive policy on data protection or online security as the Indian Information Technology Act (2008) or amended rules in 2011 are not adequate. It is thus necessary to make a comprehensive law to adequately protect personal data in all its dimensions and to ensure an effective enforcement machinery for the same.
  • India needs to learn from the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which protects and empowers all EU citizens data privacy and  reshapes the way organizations across the region approach data privacy.
    • Such regulations could make it more difficult for organisations to collect data from users and customers, and to use it to target customers through third-party platforms 
  • Allow companies to pursue independent data protection policies (guided by baseline norms), but monitor their enforcement through a national, multi-stakeholder agency. There is precedent for such an institution: the United States Federal Trade Commission performs such a role, 
  • Data localisation:-
    • Encourage Indian industries to be able to build and retain data within our boundaries. In the short term, India should also create a policy framework that encourages overseas multinationals such as Google and Amazon to build large data centres in India and to retain the bulk of raw data collected in India within national geographical boundaries.
  • Should also build research and development activities in Big Data Science and data centre technology at our academic and research institutions 
  • Justice Shah group had emphasised on taking the informed and individual consent of users before the collection of their personal data.
    • It had proposed giving users prior notice of information practices, providing them with choices, and collection of only limited data necessary for the purpose for which it is collected. If there is a change of purpose, it must be notified to the individual.
  • Social media cell in Election commission needs to be strengthened
  • Cyber security need to be strengthened by signing Budapest convention 

Topic:   Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

5) Discuss the relevance of Havana Charter for addressing the imbalances and inequities of the 21st century global economy. (250 Words)

Livemint

Havana charter :-

  • In Havana in 1948, the UN Conference on Trade and Employment concluded a draft charter for the ITO, known as the Havana Charter, which would have created extensive rules governing trade, investment, services, and business and employment practices.
  • However, the United States failed to ratify the agreement.
  • The economic setup then with US being a major power ,provisions against its economy were largely discouraged for instance the fears of potential losses to the farm sector being the ultimate reason of the rejection 
    of Havana Charter by the US farm sector.

Relevance :-

  • The Havana Charter was the defining moment, recasting the relationship between trade, development and employment. Its disappearance left a cavernous hole in the architecture of the post-war institutions of global governance in critical areas:
    • Labour rights and standards
    • Dispute settlement and interpretation
    • The international price for primary commodities
    • The regulation of transnational business
  • The Havana charter’s exceptions to free-trade rules, especially those made in the interests of the economic development of poorer countries, might have helped to reduce global inequalities.
  • Its influence persisted in the GATT’s (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) abiding efforts to reduce tariffs and through the flexibilities and safeguards that became part of the wider post-war multilateral consensus.
    • That consensus delivered the international public goods needed for  a stable and peaceful world order without unduly compromising the domestic policy space needed to fulfil the ambitious post-war economic and social agenda.
    • Without the power of formal binding interpretation, the GATT’s dispute settlement mechanism was voluntary and thus could be ignored largely without penalty thus making new legal norms difficult to establish.
    • It is significant that the Charter was not simply or mainly a trade organization like the WTO, its latter day descendent.
    • The possibility that the ITO might have produced a more inclusive, productive, orderly, and just world economy than that which in fact emerged in place of it.
  • Its most distinctive feature was the integration of an ambitious and successful program to reduce traditional trade barriers, with a wide-angled agreement that addressed investment, employment standards, development, business monopolies
  • It pioneered the idea that trade disputes had to be settled by consultation and mediation rather than with legal clout. The recent dispute settlement in WTO shows that the legal way of resolving can have diverse impact on the relationship of the nations 
  • Further it established an institutional linkage between trade and labour standards that would effect a major advance in global governance.
  • Finally it embedded  the full employment obligation, along with a commitment to free markets as the cornerstone of  multilateralism.
  • It referred to policies that governments had to adopt to prevent economic depressions and assure social stability, both nationally and internationally..This kind of approach would make economies more inclusive .
  • It insisted that countries should be protected against external shocks and predatory corporate behaviour
    • The Charter transgressed the fundamental notion that trade was principally organized for private gain and profit and that it had to be fully competitive, subject only to moderate barriers such as tariffs for revenue or industrial protection.
    • Not only applied to governments but also to the actions 
      of private firms whose restrictive business practices threatened to undermine the liberal goal of non discriminatory trade.
  • It set out for a more balanced and expanding world economy through a combination of increased domestic spending, widespread industrial development, long-term capital flows, and strengthened worker rights. The recent US approach with increasing protectionist politics is against this notion.
  • International commitments should be commensurate with their level of economic and social development 
    • The full use and equitable distribution of the world’s human and material resources would be managed through strong public action, at both the national and international levels.

Conclusion:-

  • Despite its short, but significant, existence it nevertheless set the international trade agenda for years afterwards. It was the high-water mark of the only international trade organization that effectively rewrote the fundamentals. Trade and economic endeavour should be conducted 
    with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, developing the full use of the resources of the world and expanding the production and exchange of goods.

General Studies – 3


Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth

6) How Air India privatisation will impact the Indian aviation industry? Examine. (250 Words)

Livemint

Background:-

  • India’s government is pushing towards the privatisation of its debt-laden carrier Air India, which is losing market share amid cut-throat domestic competition.

Impact:-

  • Positive:-
    • Air India’s international slots, bilateral rights and other assets will enable its acquirer to fly on lucrative (international) routes.
    • The privatisation of Air India will ensure that the industry will run in a rational way. The private player, will bring about a rational spending, funding and capital infusion in Air India.
    • According to economic survey ,disinvestment in Air India will help boost Indian airlines’ international market share.
    • Problems Air India faced could be diluted:-
      • Since 2011-12, despite infusing Rs 24,000 crore of taxpayer money as equity support into Air India, the domestic share of the carrier has fallen from 19% to 13%.
      • The accumulated debts of the carrier have increased to around Rs 50,000 crore.
      • The national carrier is one among other airlines that were struggling and is still undergoing a 10-year rehabilitation package that started in 2012.
    • Brings in more professionalism and reduces political interference.
    • Competition might lead to lower fares.
    • Helps it to achieve targets under UDAN scheme.
  • Concerns:-
  • Past liabilities, personnel issues, operational freedom and other legacy challenges associated with Air India.
  • will have serious consequences on Hajj air operations.
  • There is no empirical evidence that private sector can run a better airline.
  • There are many sectors and routes which the private airlines may not be interested in flying as they may not find them economical to operate.
    • Connectivity to northeast and other sectors which were not explored by private airlines were undertaken by air India but now this might be an issue.
  • In some situations, it is necessary to carry out emergency evacuations of Indian nationals from other countries due to natural hazards, political instability or wars.
  • The civil aviation market in India, like in many parts of the world, is oligopolistic, with a few firms controlling large market shares.
    • Forcing the exit or merger of an established state-run airline with the third largest market share by which has 31% of the planes in the sector and prime slots at airports worldwide  will only aid in the undesirable concentration of market power with a few already large private airlines, and will prove anti-competitive.

Way forward:-

  • Offer a single integrated network:
    • The domestic and international operations should be offered in one line, as there is significant value in the feed which they provide to each other. Air India is also part of a global system as a result of its membership of Star Alliance. Separation of domestic and international operations will result in reduced interest.
  • Provide comprehensive disclosures:
    • The data room should include detailed information on Air India’s finances and labour contracts as these are two of the most sensitive issues that will impact interest and valuations. A large proportion of the technical staff are due to retire within the next 5-10 years which is an issue that the new owners will need to prepare for.
  • India should encourage development of domestic hubs so that Indian airlines can take passengers directly, instead of foreign carriers first taking passengers to their home countries and then offering them onward connections.
  • To make private airlines operate in uneconomical routes, special incentives or subsidies can be granted to airlines operating on such routes.
  • The government can establish a specialised agency under the Defence or External Affairs Ministry for evacuating Indians from foreign countries.
  • On easing current restrictions on Indian airlines to fly overseas, the Survey has advocated a further liberalisation of the 0/20 rule.
  • Air India will have to cut layers of management, align staff by role, bring in lateral hires, overhaul customer facing functions, and implement a massive training exercise.

Topic: Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

7) Examine the challenges posed by driverless cars to various stakeholders such as regulators, governments, manufacturers and customers. (250 Words)

Livemint

Background:-

  • The recent incident about self driving Uber car killing a pedestrian brings to light the argument whether self driving and automated cars are safe.

Challenges to different stakeholders :-

  • Regulators:-
    • By making automobile travel more accessible and convenient, driverless vehicles are likely to increase total vehicle traffic and associated problems.
    • Driverless cars may become commercially available in the 2020s, but will initially be costly and constrained, and able to self-drive only on designated highways in good weather.
  • Governments:-
    • Increasing adoption of self-driving cars will have an impact on labour markets (drivers will lose jobs) and also raise questions of equity (in lieu of driving jobs lost, well-educated coders will find work in autonomous car development companies).
    • These cars would also be intelligent machines carrying huge amounts of data and, therefore, with it, privacy risks and security challenges.
    • Self-driving cars will prove an irresistible target for hacker, if they ever hit the road.
  • Manufactures:-
    • Although automated driving features are coming soon it may be decades before a vehicle can drive itself safely at any speed on any road in any weather.
    • Optimistic predictions generally refer to limited self-driving ability, such as operating in fair weather on grade-separated highways: no current technologies allow reliable operation in heavy rain or snow, or on unpaved roads.
    • Expensive, adding thousands of dollars in annual costs for additional equipment, maintenance and specialized mapping services.
    • Driving in traffic requires very complex software. Because of the diversity of possible interactions, driving in traffic requires far more decisions, and is therefore orders of magnitude more complex software
  • Customers:-
    • The more idle time the safety driver has during the ride, the more difficult will it be for him to refocus in critical situations so this makes it even unsafe for customers.
    • Self-driving cars will similarly generate a new pattern of life and its attendant challenges. For example, no threat of “drink and drive” penalties might lead to more drinking.

Conclusion:-

  • Driverless cars will not displace the need for walking, cycling, and public transit; on the contrary, efficiency and equity require public policies, such as efficient road pricing and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, to favour sharing and prevent autonomous driving from increasing total vehicle travel, traffic congestion, and energy consumption.

Topic:  Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

8) India’s policy support for the solar sector is increasingly focussed on domestic manufacturing. Discuss the issues arising out of shifting policy focus on green manufacturing. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Background:-

  • The 2018 Economic Survey identifies renewable energy as a champion sector under the Make in India 2.0 programme. Policy support for the solar sector is increasingly focussed on domestic manufacturing, both in the form of capital subsidies and considerations of trade regulation. 

Issues with domestic green manufacturing :-

  • Implementing trade remedies would also result in higher tariffs and make solar power less attractive for the already financially strained and RE-sceptical utilities. 
  • Prioritising domestic goals without complying with international trade rules affects the much-needed stakeholder confidence :-
    • Previous measures (for example, the domestic content requirement or DCR scheme) to assuage the concerns of the domestic solar manufacturers were challenged and overturned at the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
    • It discriminated against foreign solar cell suppliers. A draft policy (2017) aimed at promoting domestic solar manufacturing through a proposed 12,000 MW DCR component may evoke similar opposition at the WTO. 
  • Lack of coordination among ministries :-
    • India’s solar sector is currently caught in inter-ministerial cross-fire. 
    • For instance issues between Ministry of Finance (MoF) and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) to implement trade remedies (safeguard duties and anti-dumping duties or ADD, respectively).
    • Further, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been grappling with issues posed by the MoF regarding the re-classification of solar panels as electrical motors, imposing additional duties and cesses on importers.
  • Solar panels also require inverters and storage batteries to convert direct electricity to alternating electricity so as to generate electricity. While installing a solar panel is quite cheap, installing other equipments becomes expensive.
  • The land space required to install a solar plant with solar panel is quite large and that land space remains occupied for many years altogether and cannot be used for other purposes.
  • Energy production is quite low compared to other forms of energy.
  • Solar panels require considerable maintenance as they are fragile and can be easily damaged.  So extra expenses are incurred as additional insurance costs.
  • Creating demand for domestic solar modules is an issue.
  • Other issues are:-
    • Extending the existing RPOs to captive consumers
    • Implementing and monitoring use of feed-in-tariff processes
    • Delay in Awarding Contracts [out of 12 GW of bids conducted in the FY 2016-17 so far, only 4 GW has been awarded. Additionally, out of the 2.5 GW DCR category projects (within 12 GW), only 0.850 GW has been awarded].
    • Delay in new manufacturing policy implementation
    • The huge discount in tariffs
    • Developing an easy certification process to establish high growth rate
    • Solar skill development – to harness solar potential by increasing domestic capacity and awareness.
    • There are also challenges like- delays in land acquisition, lack of uniform policy and implementation issues, low investment in R&D, and many more that need to be addressed

 

Way forward:-

  • India will need a comprehensive strategy on issues such as effective sourcing of critical minerals, investment in R&D, fiscal benefits for the industries of the future.
  • Government could tilt its green manufacturing mix in favour of nascent industries of the future such as energy storage, electric vehicles, and IT solutions for grid integration.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics
 

Answer:-

 

Nowadays, companies are increasingly employing web data mining in order to find their bottom lines and grow their customer base. Using Web data mining, a company can identify a potential competitor, improve customer service, or target customer needs and expectations. A government agency may also seek to uncover terrorist threats or other criminal activities through the use of a Web data mining application.

 

Web mining makes it difficult for an individual to autonomously control the unveiling and dissemination of data about his/her private life

 

While web data mining can provide companies the data they need to market their products and services to customers, it will also give them access to a large amount of personal information

 

Users are unaware of how the information collected about them is being used. Their personal data can be misused, or is used for a purpose other than the one for which it is supplied. Hence, it is unethical to use web data mining as people’s privacy is violated.

 

Right of consent is largely neglected  here as the users do not have the opportunity to consent or withhold consent for data collection and use.

People will be judged and treated as group members rather than individuals. When the profiles contain data of a sensitive nature, it could be unethical as people could be discriminated against if they are being labelled as an individual with certain characteristics.

 

Government needs to being in strong data protection laws long with making users aware of the seriousness of the extent of  misuse of data .Similarly companies need to be made accountable for the data they collect.