Insights Daily Current Affairs, 27 March 2018
Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Context: The government has launched “E- Tribes”, TRIFED’s websites. It includes www.tribesindia.com, www.trifed.in and Retail Inventory Software and M-commerce app.
Significance of this move:
Going Digital will lead to expansion of tribal commerce and the availability of tribal products over large area, reaping greater benefits for tribal artisans. Retail Trade of tribal products would expand all over the country and the world.
TRIFED is an apex organisation at National Level and functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
What it does?
TRIFED is serving the interests of Tribals, who are engaged in collection of NTFP and making of Tribal Art & Handicraft Products for their livelihood so as to ensure better remunerative price for their products as well as for the socio-economic betterment through Self Help Groups, Empanelled NGOs, State level Tribal Development Corporations, Forest Development Corporations for undertaking marketing development of the tribal products.
It also organizes exhibitions like National Tribal Craft Expo called “Aadi Mahotsav” etc. in which it promotes and markets tribal products.
- For Prelims: E- Tribes India and TRIFED.
- For Mains: Tribal development- challenges, need and solutions.
Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Context: The government has initiated the process of sale of more than 9,400 enemy properties by issuing guidelines and directing the office of the custodian to submit the list of all such movable and immovable assets within three months. The sale of enemy properties is expected to fetch around Rs 1 lakh crore for the government exchequer.
The move comes after the amendment of the Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Act 2017 and the Enemy Property (Amendment) Rules, 2018, which ensured that the heirs of those who migrated to Pakistan and China during partition and afterwards will have no claim over the properties left behind in India.
There are 9,280 properties left behind by Pakistani nationals and 126 properties which belonged to Chinese nationals.
What are enemy properties?
When wars broke out between India and China in 1962, and India and Pakistan in 1965 and 1971, the central government took over properties of citizens of China and Pakistan in India under the Defence of India Acts. These Acts defined an ‘enemy’ as a country that committed an act of aggression against India, and its citizens.
The properties of enemies in India were classified as enemy property. The properties included land, buildings, shares held in companies, gold and jewellery of the citizens of enemy countries. The responsibility of the administration of enemy properties was handed over to the Custodian of Enemy Property, an office under the central government.
Enemy properties Act:
- After the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965, the Enemy Property Act was enacted in 1968, which regulates such properties and lists the custodian’s powers.
- The government amended the Act in the wake of a claim laid by the heirs of Raja Mohammad Amir Mohammad Khan, known as Raja of Mahmudabad, on his properties spread across Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
- The government has vested these properties in the Custodian of Enemy Property for India, an office instituted under the Central government.
For Prelims and Mains: What are enemy properties and enemy properties act.
Sources: the hindu.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
National Conference on Down Syndrome
Context: National Conference on Down Syndrome was recently inaugurated in New Delhi. The objective of this conference was to provide excellent opportunities to the parents to obtain information about latest development in education and skilling and inclusive living of persons with Down Syndrome.
- The Conference was organized by National Trust for the welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities under M/o SJ&E in collaboration with Muskaan, a registered organisation of the National Trust.
- On 19th December 2011, the United Nations General Assembly declared to observe 21st March as World Down Syndrome Day (WDSD) and since then every year, this day is officially observed by UN to create awareness about people with Down Syndrome.
About Down Syndrome:
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition associated with intellectual and learning disabilities.
Causes: Persons with Down Syndrome have 47 chromosomes as compared to 46 in majority of people.
Impacts: This one Extra chromosome causes its own impact and slows down learning process. It impacts neurological functioning causing impairment of intellectual functions e.g. analytical thinking, complex abstractions and judgement etc.
Treatment: Good schooling, loving family, learning and work opportunities make them grow up to be responsible, loving and cheerful persons. Their emotions and needs are like any other person of the same age. Accepting and respecting family/community is a big support to their growth and development.
About National Trust:
What is it? The National Trust is a Statutory Body under Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. The National Trust was envisaged with a core mission of providing opportunities for capacity development of Persons with Disabilities and their families, fulfilling their rights, facilitating and promoting the creation of an enabling environment and an inclusive society.
Functions: The National Trust has been set up to discharge two basic duties – legal and welfare. Legal duties are discharged through Local Level Committee (LLC) set up at district level under the chairmanship of the District Collector / District Magistrate and providing legal guardianship. Welfare duty is discharged through the schemes and activities. The schemes and activities of the National Trust inter-alia include training, awareness and capacity building programmes and shelter, care giving and empowerment.
Appointment: Chairperson and board members will be appointed by the Central Government.
For Prelims and Mains: Down syndrome and National Trust.
Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
ISA and India sign the Host Country Agreement
Context: The International Solar Alliance (ISA) and the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), have signed the Host Country Agreement.
About the framework agreement:
- The Agreement will give ISA a juridical personality and gives it power to contract, to acquire and dispose off movable and immovable properties, to institute and defend legal proceedings.
- Under this agreement, ISA shall enjoy such privileges, applicable tax concessions and immunities as are necessary for ISA’s Headquarter to independently discharge its function and programmes.
- ISA shall be deriving its status, privileges and immunities as per Article 10 of Framework Agreement.
The Paris Declaration establishes ISA as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries.
Objectives: The ISA’s major objectives include global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity and mobilisation of investment of over US$ 1000 billion into solar energy by 2030.
What it does? As an action-oriented organisation, the ISA brings together countries with rich solar potential to aggregate global demand, thereby reducing prices through bulk purchase, facilitating the deployment of existing solar technologies at scale, and promoting collaborative solar R&D and capacity building.
When it entered into force? When the ISA Framework Agreement entered into force on December 6th, 2017, ISA formally became a de-jure treaty based International Intergovernmental Organization, headquartered at Gurugram, India.
The ISA is not only expected to spur innovation in the RE space but also help make India a technological hub with independent manufacturing capabilities of RE equipment like solar panels, rather than being dependent on imports, through initiatives like ‘Make in India’. India’s Ministry of External Affairs is expected to play a role in “marrying Indian tech and finance capabilities with specific projects around the world”.
India announced a goal of obtaining 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030 at the Paris climate change summit. It is close to achieving 20 GW grid connected solar power generation capacity this fiscal year (2018), in pursuit of achieving its target of 100 GW by 2022.
- For Prelims: ISA.
- For Mains: Renewable energy and its significance, India’s leadership in the sector.
Topic: awareness in space.
Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)
Context: NASA and SpaceX joining hands for their all-new combined mission known as Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. The mission will be launched in April this year.
About TESS mission:
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an upcoming NASA mission that will look for planets orbiting the brightest stars in Earth’s sky. Its launch vehicle will be a Falcon 9 rocket from SpaceX.
Mission: The mission will monitor at least 200,000 stars for signs of exoplanets, ranging from Earth-sized rocky worlds to huge gas giant planets. TESS, however, will focus on stars that are 30 to 100 times brighter than those Kepler examined. This will help astronomers better understand the structure of solar systems outside of our Earth, and provide insights into how our own solar system formed.
Orbit: TESS will occupy a never-before-used orbit high above Earth. The elliptical orbit, called P/2, is exactly half of the moon’s orbital period; this means that TESS will orbit Earth every 13.7 days. Its closest point to Earth (67,000 miles or 108,000 kilometers) is about triple the distance of geosynchronous orbit, where most communications satellites operate.
Sources: the hindu.
Basmati GI tag
Context: Madhya Pradesh has filed a writ petition in the Madras High Court challenging an order passed by Assistant Registrar of Geographical Indications (GI) on March 15 excluding the State from being granted the GI tag for basmati rice.
What’s the issue?
In May 2010, GI status was given to basmati grown only in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and parts of western Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. Madhya Pradesh moved a statutory opposition demanding that its 13 districts be recognised as traditional Basmati growing regions.
However, GI registry had rejected Madhya Pradesh’s claim as being the original and unique basmati growing region. It had observed that the documents and evidence filed by Madhya Pradesh show the importance, special characters of rice cultivated in Madhya Pradesh but not the basmati cultivation in the traditional growing area.
What’s the concern now?
Madhya Pradesh says non-inclusion of the state in the basmati growing areas would have an adverse effect on the lives of farmers who mainly depend upon basmati cultivation and it will also affect the export potential, which will indirectly reduce the country’s turnover from the export of basmati.
About GI tag:
What is it?
A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
Significance of a GI tag:
Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness, which is essentially attributable to the place of its origin.
Once the GI protection is granted, no other producer can misuse the name to market similar products. It also provides comfort to customers about the authenticity of that product.
Sources: the hindu.
Facts for Prelims:
Smart India Hackathon 2018:
Context: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) under the aegis of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is organizing Smart India Hackathon 2018.
- Smart India Hackathon 2018 is a non-stop digital product development competition, where problems are posed to technology students for innovative solutions. It will harnesses creativity & expertise of students and sparks institute-level hackathons.
- It builds funnel for ‘Startup India’ campaign and crowdsources solutions for improving governance and quality of life. It also provides opportunity to citizens to provide innovative solutions to India’s daunting problems
- Smart India Hackathon 2018 would be the second massive scale hackathon initiative in India following Smart India Hackathon 2017.
- Winners stand to get cash prizes and a chance to be part of the NASSCOM’s 10,000 Startups program.
Surat becomes first district to have 100% solar powered health centres:
Context: Surat has become the first district in the country to have 100% solar powered Primary Health Centers (PHC). There are a total of 52 PHCs in the district and all of them are now powered by solar system.