Topic: Urbanisation – problems and remedies; changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
1) Urban floods are not only an ecological disturbance produced due to anthropogenic factors, they are also an occurrence within a sociopolitical space. Analyse. (250 Words)
Why this question?
Urban flood are in news for pst few years due their increasing frequency and intensity. It’s an important topic as it links geography with sociology.
Key demand of the question:
Main focus should be on analysing how floods are also the result of socio-political causes. In addition, one third of your answer should be devoted to explain why they are majorly ecological disturbances produced by anthropogenic factors. The reference article focuses on Nashik as case study. In your answer, give examples of Chennai, Mumbai and Bangalore too.
Analyse – In parts, you should examine and comment(wherever necessary) on various dimensions of urban floods.
Structure of Answer:
In the introduction, you should highlight why frequent occurrence of urban floods are also socio-political phenomenon. You may give certain stat or mention recent event to give this introduction current affairs dimension.
In the body, you should divide answer into TWO mains Parts: First part to analyse urban floods as consequence of anthropogenic factors (one-third space). In the second part, categorise into parts and examine in detail (Religious practices, ghats, Encroachments by the poor etc)
In the conclusion, argue that floods have become complex phenomenon and need mitigation strategies, not adaptation strategies.
(In these answers, try to present facts as much as possible – NDMA definitions, SDG goals etc)