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Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 14 : 12 – 19 November, 2017

Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 14 : 12 – 19 November, 2017


  1. Reegle Tagging API (application programming interface)



An explosion of information is available online in the climate and development sectors. But this flood of content in our email inboxes, on servers, in data warehouses or in the cloud is just that – a flood – but no catalogue of the contents. 

The reegle Tagging API is a free service that automatically turns data into knowledge –that helps the users of information services make better decisions.


The reegle Tagging API (application programming interface) offers two core services to organisations that publish online resources relating to climate and clean energy:

  • Automated tagging of documents covering renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate relevant subjects
  • Suggestion of related documents from the rapidly growing content pool of items already indexed using the service.


Automated tagging ensures that content is classified in a consistent way, which helps the end-user find the resources he or she is looking for. 

  • The suggestion of related documents helps to cover more angles of a given topic and can enrich your website’s offering.
  • Use of the reegle Tagging API is completely free of charge.
  • API can be used to index original content in five different languages: English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and German.




  1. Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN)


The CTCN consists of two parts: a centre—a coordinating entity located in UN City Copenhagen—and a worldwide network of organizations that delivers CTCN services—both virtually and actually.

In short, the centre operates the network, and together they constitute the CTCN.

Together with UNEP and UNIDO, the consortium of partners of CTCN have breadth and depth of expertise in climate adaptation and mitigation.


It facilitates the transfer of technologies through:

  • Creating access to information and knowledge on climate technologies.
  • Fostering collaboration among climate technology stakeholders via the Centre’s network of regional and sectoral experts from academia, the private sector, and public and research institutions.


Through these services, it aims to address barriers that hinder the development and transfer of climate technologies, and to thereby help create an enabling environment for:

  • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions and climate vulnerability
  • Improved local innovation capacities
  • Increased investments in climate technology projects.

It does not finance carbon credit per se.





  1. Raman Effect


  • Raman effect is the change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.
  • When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength.
  • A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman Effect.


  • It is basically the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
  • When a beam of monochromatic (having single colour) light passes through a transparent substance, it scatters. Raman studied this broken light.
  • He found that there were two spectral lines of very low intensity (strength) parallel to the incident monochromatic light.
  • This showed that broken light was not monochromatic, though the incident light was monochromatic.
  • Thus, a great phenomenon hidden in nature was revealed to him. This phenomenon became famous as Raman Effect and spectral lines in the scattered light as Raman Lines.


While scientists had been debating over the question whether light was like waves or like particles, the Raman Effect proved that light is made up of particles known as photons. However, now quantum physics clearly refutes these findings.

Source: Additional Research:



  1. Agricultural Insurance Company of India Ltd. (AICIL)


  • It is a Public Sector Insurance Company. It covers almost 20 million farmers, making it the biggest crop insurer in the world in number of farmers served.
  • AIC is under the administrative control of Ministry of Finance, Government of India, and under the operational supervision of Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
  • Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA), Hyderabad, India, is the regulatory body governing AIC.


  • AIC took over the implementation of National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) which, until FY 2002-03 was implemented by General Insurance Corporation of India.
  • In addition, AIC also transacts other insurance businesses directly or indirectly concerning agriculture and its allied activities.
  • Now even the NAIS has been revamped as Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana.
  • This revamped scheme now covers 30 per cent of the gross cropped area.

Statutory and Finance:

  • Insurance Act 1938, Companies Act 2013 and IRDA Act 1999 regulate the AICIL.
  • General Insurance Corporation of India is a major shareholder (35 %) in AICIL, but not its parent organization.
  • Other shareholders are NABARD (30%), National Insurance Company Limited – 8.75 %, The New India Assurance Company Limited – 8.75 % etc.

Source: Additional Research: Chapter 13: Indian Economy: Ramesh Singh



  1. Sea buckthorn

What and Where?

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is one of the important natural resources of the mountainous regions of China and Russia.

  • The plant grows naturally in sandy soil at an altitude of 1,200-4,500 meters in cold climates, though it can be cultivated at lower altitudes and into temperate zones.
  • Recently it has been extensively planted across much of northern China, and in other countries, to prevent soil erosion and to serve as an economic resource for food and medicine products.
  • For example, Canada has invested in planting sea buckthorn, originally brought over from Siberia in the 1930s, hoping to develop a good agriculture market
  • More than 90% or about 1,500,000 ha of the world’s natural sea buckthorn habitat is found in China, Mongolia, Russia, northern Europe, and Canada, where the plant is used for soil, water and wildlife conservation, anti-desertification purposes, and consumer products.


  • Sea buckthorn oil is extracted from the berries and seeds of the sea buckthorn plant, and both the berries and seeds are great for the skin and provide internal benefits.
  • The plant is primarily valued for its golden-orange fruits, which provide vitamin C, vitamin E, and other nutrients, flavonoids, oils rich in essential fatty acids, and other healthful components.
  • The leaves are now also being used for making a beverage tea.
  • The flavonoids of sea buckthorn (mainly from fruit pulp; also in the leaves) and the oils of sea buckthorn (primarily in the seeds, but also in the fleshy part of the fruit) are the two items specially extracted for medicinal use.

Source: Additional Research: 12th Biology NCERT




  1. Key differences between sanctuaries and national parks
  • All rights of people within a National Park have to be settled, while in a Sanctuary certain rights can be allowed.
  • Livestock grazing is prohibited in a National Park, but can be allowed in a regulated manner in Sanctuary.
  • A sanctuary can be upgraded to a national park, but a national park cannot be downgraded as a sanctuary.
  • Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted, while the boundaries of a national park are well defined and no biotic interference is permitted.
  • Essentially, national park is a more tightly regulated area than a sanctuary.

Factual Information:

  • As of July 2016, the Protected Areas (PAs) in India comprising national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and conservation and community reserves cover about 4.89% of the country’s geographical area.
  • Currently, Madhya Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands have maximum numbers of national parks (nine each); followed by Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand and West Bengal (six each).
  • Maximum numbers of wildlife sanctuaries are present in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (96) followed by Maharashtra (41) and Tamil Nadu (29).