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Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 5 : 20 – 27 August, 2017

I-Learning Test 5 : 20 – 27 August 2017



  1. Nuclear medicine



A radiopharmaceutical is a chemical substance that contains radioactive atoms within its structure and is suitable for administration to humans for diagnosis or treatment of disease


Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty, which utilizes the nuclear properties of radioactive nuclides for diagnostic evaluation and / or physiological conditions of the body and provides therapy with unsealed radioactive sources.


There are certain differences between nuclear medicine and radiation therapy.

  • In radiation therapy an external radiation beam or sealed sources are used for destroying the cancerous tissue whereas in nuclear medicine the radiopharmaceutical is administered orally and then using a gamma – camera, image of a particular organ is taken for diagnosis of the disease.
  • The therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals contain radionuclide, which emit particulate emission which help in destroying the unwanted (cancerous) tissues.




  1. Education cess

It is an additional levy on the basic tax liability.

  • Governments resort to imposition of cess for meeting specific expenditure.
  • Both corporate and individual income is at present subject to an education cess of 3%.
  • The Education Cess comprises 2% Primary Education Cess and 1% Secondary & Higher Education Cess.
  • The Primary Education Cess is credited to Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh (PSK) and is used to meet part of expenditure on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) & Mid Day Meal (MDM) Schemes.
  • There is also a separate fund to credit Secondary and Higher Education which was established recently.

Before this, Cess and funds required for secondary and higher education were directly allocated through Budgetary provisions.




  1. Water Supply India

In India, the design of water supply systems has been done using BIS 1172: 1993.

Understanding how consumers are responding to water availability will enable better design of systems and result in efficient use of water.

BIS 1172: 1993, reaffirmed in 1998, specifies a consideration of use of the following:

  • For communities with a population of between 20,000 to 100,000 — 100 to 150 litres per head per day
  • For communities with a population of over 100,000 — 150 to 200 litres per head per day.
  • Since rural areas have a population of less than 5,000, their use would be less than 150 L per capita per day.

You can read this for more details

Source: Additional Research: Page 16: 8th NCERT Geography




  1. Mulching

Mulch is simply a protective layer of a material that is spread on top of the soil. Mulchs provide organic matter which helps keep the soil loose.


Mulchs improve root growth and increase the water-holding capacity of the soil.

  • Organic mulches also improve the condition of the soil. As these mulches slowly decompose, they provide organic matter which helps keep the soil loose.
  • This improves root growth, increases the infiltration of water, and also improves the water-holding capacity of the soil.
  • Organic matter is a source of plant nutrients and provides an ideal environment for earthworms and other beneficial soil organisms.

Organic and inorganic mulches

  • Both organic and inorganic mulches can be used.
  • While inorganic mulches have their place in certain landscapes, they lack the soil improving properties of organic mulches.
  • Inorganic mulches, because of their permanence, may be difficult to remove if crop plans need to be changed.

Source: Additional Research: Page 14: 8th NCERT: Geography



  1. AngioChip


The fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have presented exciting possibilities to regenerate tissues and organs.

Significant progresses have been made in the area of skin, and bone replacement.

Newly developed bioengineering tools have moved this field further towards regenerating complex solid organ such as liver, pancreas, and heart, etc.


Some Researchers recently developed a new way of growing realistic human tissues outside the body.

  • The “person-on-a-chip” technology, called AngioChip, is a tool for discovering and testing new drugs, and could eventually be used to repair or replace damaged organs.
  • These tiny polymer scaffolds contain channels that are about 100 micrometres wide, about the same diameter as a human hair.
  • When seeded with cells, the channels act as artificial blood vessels.

By mimicking tissues in the human heart and other organs, these scaffolds provide a new way to test drugs for potentially dangerous side effects.







  1. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)


The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) was established in 1980, under the joint sponsorship of International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization, and has also been sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO since 1993.

It is a component of the World Climate Programme.


WCRP’s mission is to facilitate the analysis and prediction of Earth system variability and change for use in an increasing range of practical applications of direct relevance, benefit and value to society.

WCRP research is centred on:

  • observing changes in the atmosphere, oceans, land and cryosphere and in the interfaces between these components;
  • improving our knowledge and understanding of global and regional climate variability and change, and of the mechanisms responsible for this change;
  • assessing and attributing significant trends in global and regional climates;
  • developing climate models for a wide range of space and time scales; and
  • investigating the sensitivity of the climate system to natural and human-induced forcing and estimating the changes resulting from specific disturbing influences.