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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

1) Differentiate between earthquake magnitude and intensity. How does the modern magnitude scale work? How are large earthquakes measured? (200 Words)

The Indian Express


Magnitude and Intensity measure different characteristics of earthquakes. Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake. Magnitude is determined from measurements on seismographs. Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location. Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment.

When an earthquake occurs, its magnitude can be given a single numerical value on the Richter Magnitude Scale. However the intensity is variable over the area affected by the earthquake, with high intensities near the epicenter and lower values further away.

These are allocated a value depending on the effects of the shaking according to the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

How Strong Earthquake Feels to Observer. Qualitative assessment of the kinds of damage done by an earthquake. Depends on distance to earthquake & strength of earthquake. Determined from the intensity of shaking and damage from the earthquake. Magnitude. Related to Energy Release. Quantitative measurement of the amount of energy released by an earthquake by modern seismograph. Depends on the size of the fault that breaks. Determined from Seismic Records.

Working of Magnitude scale:

  • The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs.
  • Adjustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake.
  • The Richter magnitude scale assigns a magnitude number to quantify the size of an earthquake.
  • The Richter scale, developed in the 1930s, is a base-10 logarithmic scale in order to cover the huge range of earthquakes.
  • It defines magnitude as the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of the seismic waves to arbitrary, minor amplitude, as recorded on a standardized seismograph at a standard distance.
  • Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; in terms of energy, each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about 31.6 times the amount of energy released, and each increase of 0.2 corresponds to a doubling of the energy released.

Moment magnitude scale:

  • Today the moment magnitude scale, abbreviated MW, is preferred because it works over a wider range of earthquake sizes and is applicable globally. The moment magnitude scale is based on the total moment release of the earthquake.
  • Moment is a product of the distance a fault moved and the force required to move it. It is derived from modeling recordings of the earthquake at multiple stations.
  • Moment magnitude estimates are about the same as Richter magnitudes for small to large earthquakes. But only the moment magnitude scale is capable of measuring M8 and greater events accurately.
  • Magnitude scales can be used to describe earthquakes so small that they are expressed in negative numbers. The scale also has no upper limit, so it can describe earthquakes of unimaginable and (so far) inexperienced intensity, such as magnitude 10.0 and beyond.

Earthquake Magnitude Scale

Magnitude          Earthquake Effects                                                                   Estimated Number Each Year

2.5 or less            Usually not felt, but can be recorded by seismograph.             900,000

2.5 to 5.4              Often felt, but only causes minor damage.                                   30,000

5.5 to 6.0              Slight damage to buildings and other structures                          500

6.1 to 6.9              May cause a lot of damage in very populated areas.                  100

7.0 to 7.9              Major earthquakes & Serious damage                                          20

8.0 or greater     Great earthquake. Can totally destroy communities

                            Near the epicenter                                                                       One every 5 to 10 years


Topic:  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2) Empowerment and emancipation are twin goals to secure dignity for transgenders. Comment, with special focus on measures needed to taken by respective states to assist in the transformation. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Transgender are one of the most disadvanced sections of the society all over the world. There is rising discourse about the issues faced by transgender community and way to deal with these is getting policy level attention. Empowerment of transgender community can be done through emancipation efforts at the first level itself.

In contemporary usage, transgender has become an ‘umbrella’ term that is used to describe a wide range of identities and experiences, including but not limited to transsexual people; male and female cross-dressers, inter-sexed individuals; and men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, whose appearance or characteristics are perceived to be gender atypical. In its broadest sense, transgender encompasses anyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms.

Measures needs to be taken to improve condition of transgender:

  1. The first and foremost thing state can do it to launch a statewide campaign to dignify the lives of transgender. The very root cause of deprivation of transgender people is social exclusion. This kind of social exclusion must be removed by state efforts.
  2. The provision of reservations for transgender community is already under discussion by central government. State government can implement a policy to provide reservation to transgender people in education and in economic opportunities.
  3. State government must frame the organizational setup to work among the transgender people for the transgender community. The barrier between two groups must be broken by government first.
  4. Many NGOs are working in the empowerment of transgender community. Government must give boost to their working through collaboration or some other methods such as funding etc.
  5. Public institutions must be leading institutions to provide identity to transgender people by recognizing them in public places such as provision of separate toilets or option as a transgender in various forms.
  6. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016, which seeks to define transgender and prohibit discrimination against them, was introduced in the Lok Sabha in 2016. This bill should be taken on agenda by government for parliamentary approval.
  7. Being the state subject law and order mechanism of the state must be made sensitive and prompt towards victimization of transgender people.
  8. State human rights commission can act as a leading agency in protection and empowerment of transgender community.


Indian society is under the transformation with more and more right based approach of various marginalised sections of the society. Transgender has been victimized by society for thousands of years and this is the high time to recognise their challenges and provide multilateral solutions for their welfare.

Supplementary information:

The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016

Highlights of the Bill

  • The Bill defines a transgender person as one who is partly female or male; or a combination of female and male; or neither female nor male. In addition, the person’s gender must not match the gender assigned at birth, and includes trans-men, trans-women, persons with intersex variations and gender-queers.
  • A transgender person must obtain a certificate of identity as proof of recognition of identity as a transgender person and to invoke rights under the Bill.
  • Such a certificate would be granted by the District Magistrate on the recommendation of a Screening Committee. The Committee would comprise a medical officer, a psychologist or psychiatrist, a district welfare officer, a government official, and a transgender person.
  • The Bill prohibits discrimination against a transgender person in areas such as education, employment, and healthcare. It directs the central and state governments to provide welfare schemes in these areas.
  • Offences like compelling a transgender person to beg, denial of access to a public place, physical and sexual abuse, etc. would attract up to two years’ imprisonment and a fine.

Key Issues and Analysis

  • The Supreme Court has held that the right to self-identification of gender is part of the right to dignity and autonomy under Article 21 of the Constitution. However, objective criteria may be required to determine one’s gender in order to be eligible for entitlements.
  • The Bill states that a person recognised as ‘transgender’ would have the right to ‘self-perceived’ gender identity. However, it does not provide for the enforcement of such a right.  A District Screening Committee would issue a certificate of identity to recognise transgender persons.
  • The definition of ‘transgender persons’ in the Bill is at variance with the definitions recognised by international bodies and experts in India.
  • The Bill includes terms like ‘trans-men’, ‘trans-women’, persons with ‘intersex variations’ and ‘gender-queers’ in its definition of transgender persons. However, these terms have not been defined.
  • Certain criminal and personal laws that are currently in force only recognise the genders of ‘man’ and ‘woman’. It is unclear how such laws would apply to transgender persons who may not identify with either of the two genders.

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, 

3) Referendums without legitimate causes are often belittled to political propaganda. Explain, how can they used effectively as a tool for democratic will. (200 Words)

The Hindu


A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. Referendum is one of the tools of direct democracy wherein people participate in decision making at that particular time. Recently referendums are under international discourse due to issues in Catalonia and Iraqi Kurdistan.

From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively.

Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, and referendums initiated by citizens.

Referendum as a tool for democratic will:

Referendum must be opted for very genuine issues and must not be made as a part of political agenda. This tool of democracy must be used for wider welfare of the people through popular decision making.

Referendum must be used effectively by choosing it for the sake of very specific issues. Multi-dimensional issues that may have wider implication beyond the understanding of common people must be avoided to take for referendum.

The formation of questions in referendum must be chosen carefully to guide people for right decision making.

It has been observed the referendums are generally accompanied with movements or dominant public opinion. In order to use referendum as a tool of genuine democracy people must not be influenced by popular agendas.

In certain cases, referendums are used to destabilize the government or to disrupt the working of government. Such kind of misuse of referendum must be avoided in order to give true meaning to democratic tool of referendum.


Direct democracy has some benefits against some lacunas. It depends on the people of the country to use the tool of referendum for very its very purpose. Referendum can avoid violence and unrest by providing a channel to people’s opinion in safe and democratic manner.



Topic:  Functioning of judiciary

4) Independence of Judiciary is crucial to national stability. Identify the issues in the promotion and transfer of judges and what can be done to make the process transparent and accountable. (200 Words)

The Wire



Recently there have been many incidences of transfer of high court judges that have raised serious questions about the efficacy of the collegium system and intentions of the central government. Transfers of the judges like Justice Jayant Patel of the Karnataka HC, Justice Rajiv Shakdher of Delhi HC Justice Abhay Thipsay of Bombay HC etc have given rise to dark rumours.

Transfers are carried out by the President on the recommendation of the Supreme Court’s five senior-most judges, the “collegium” as they’re better known. Even though the Constitution vests the power to transfer judges with the president, as with appointments, he acts only on the recommendation of the collegium.

Issues in the promotion and transfer of judges-

  • There is lack of transparency in the functioning related to promotions and transfers of the collegium system that have created opaque system of working.
  • The current status quo of the collegium system makes way for gossip and rumor in the place of facts and reasoned debate on transfer of judges that only harms the credibility of the collegium.
  • Despite proclaiming the principle of judicial independence through the collegium system, transfers of judges for the probable reasons of judgements against the ruling governments have created doubts over the independence of the collegium system.
  • No standard procedure and objective criteria for the promotions and transfers of the judges laid down in the collegium system.
  • There have been constant attempts from the executive to influence the decisions and recommendations of the collegium.

Ways to make process more transparent and accountable-

  • The instruments like ‘transfers’ of judges should be used when concerned judge requests, for promotional reasons, to prevent favoritism and nepotism at particular court. However this tool should not be used as punishment for the honest working or being critical of the government functioning.
  • All the reasons and facts behind promotions and transfers must be made public to prevent any rumors or wrong information to spread into public.
  • Collegium system must laid down objective criteria for promotions and transfers giving due importance to merit, performance etc of the judge.
  • Collegium should not buckle in front of the pressure from the executive or give in to whims and wishes of the ruling party. This is needed to ensure the credibility of the collegium.
  • Rather than having external attempts like NJAC, collegium should itself uphold highest standards of integrity and functioning that would increase transparency and accountability.

The NJAC was struck down on the basis that judicial supremacy in the matter of judicial appointments was essential to the independence of the judiciary – a basic feature of the Constitution. But when independent judges suffer when the collegium is fully in charge, the absence of reasons causes deep concern. This in turn shakes the foundation of Indian democracy. If Indian democracy is to thrive and if it is not to turn itself into authoritarian democracy, independence of judiciary regarding matters like appointments, promotions, transfers etc must be secured from outside interference.

Topic:  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

5) India not joining the  Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction will be an injustice to all its children and parents. Critically comment. (200 Words)

The Indian Express


The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is an international treaty that establishes procedures that provide for the prompt return of children wrongfully retained or removed from their habitual residence.

Why India has not joined the Hague Abduction Convention yet?

  • If an Indian woman marries to a NRI person and settles in some country, Hague convention will enter into picture when trouble arises in their marriage and women returns to India with her child. In such cases the mother, will be a “child abductor” and an application can be made to the authority in India for the return of the child to the place of: “habitual residence”, that is the any other reciprocal country who has signed the convention. To compel such a child to return to the foreign country, who would obviously go with her mother, would be compounding the original problem.
  • It is argued that the mother can go to the foreign court and convince that court that she should be allowed to take the child back. To deny a woman to apply in a foreign court for a variation of a custody order in favour of the husband means returning to a foreign land with no support structure in place, with no independent right to reside in that country and would virtually mean a separation between mother and child.
  • Often such litigation is carried only by husbands with a view to compel a woman to give up her claims to alimony and any separation settlement. It is a known fact that when faced with such a choice, custody of children or alimony, women choose to exit a bad marriage with custody of the children with no alimony.
  • Indian law does not automatically recognize foreign judgments. Now by signing the Hague Convention, India will be compelled to recognize a foreign judgment regardless of the justness of the decision on custody under Indian law or whether was delivered ex-parte.
  • According to Ministry of WCD, there are more cases of Indian women who return to the safety of their homes in India after escaping a bad marriage. Cases of women who are foreign citizens, married to Indian men, going away with their children are far fewer. Hence signing the Hague Convention would be to the disadvantage of Indian women. 

How signing the Hague Convention could help in doing away injustice to parents and children?

  • The Law Commission of India has recently made a point that the word “abduction” when used by a parent is misplaced as no parent can ‘abduct’ her own child. The Commission recommends the passing of a domestic law and the signing of the Convention.
  • The Hague convention is based on gender equality and the idea that the father should have equal rights to the child as the mother. Making father villain in every case would be unfair to them. Thus the convention offers equal grounds to both mother and father.
  • Global consensus has emerged over the Hague convention and it reflects the commitment to the best interests of children. This consensus underscores that when parents cannot agree, the courts in the country where a child lives are best suited to settle custody issues.
  • One of the Hague Convention’s greatest strengths is that disputes are resolved within months, not years, allowing parents and children to move on with their lives.
  • The Convention offers multiple safeguards to ensure that the rights of all parties are protected. This begins with a focus on preventing parents from unilaterally removing children. The Convention encourages all parties to seek mutually acceptable child custody arrangements in accordance with the laws of the country they are living in. If a parent unilaterally removes the child to another country, the Hague Convention sets forth a process to resolve the issue.
  • The most depressing worry is that joining the Convention will force abuse victims to return to their abusers. However, Article 13 of the Convention allows courts to decide not to return abducted children if the return would expose them to physical or psychological harm or otherwise place them in an intolerable situation.

A model legislation to safeguard not only the interests of the child but also of the parents, especially women must be developed. Though signing the convention is important, it should not take away all the powers of the Indian judiciary regarding responsibility of the child. Blind accession to the convention would prove disastrous. Thus India could initially develop domestic legislation and then gradually move towards the signing of the Hague convention.


Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

6)Making regional language the medium of instruction in our schools is in the larger interest of children and society. Discuss. (200 Words)



Regional languages play tremendously useful role in the education of a child.  It is the language which the child learns almost without any conscious effort on his/her part. It is a language which the child acquires while living in his/her own social group. Therefore regional languages must be given an important and prominent place in the school curriculum.

How making regional language the medium of instruction in schools is in the larger interest of children and society-

  • Regional language is the best medium for the expression of one’s ideas and feelings. Thus, it is the most potent agent for mutual communication and exchange of ideas.
  • It is through language, and especially through the regional ones, that individuals form themselves into a social organization.
  • Thinking is an instrument of acquiring knowledge, and thinking is impossible without language. “And training in the use of mother-tongue or regional language, the tongue in which a child thinks and dreams-becomes the first essential of shoaling and the finest instrument of human culture.” It is therefore of the greatest importance for our pupils to get a firm grounding in their regional language.
  • Intellectual development is impossible without language. Reading, expressing oneself, acquisition of knowledge and reasoning are the instruments for bringing about intellectual development; and all of these are possible only through language, or the regional language of the child.
  • We may be able to communicate in any language, but creative self-expression is possible only in one’s own mother tongue. This is clear from the fact that all great writers could produce great literature in their own regional language.
  • Regional language is the most important instrument for bringing about emotional development of the individual. The emotional effect of literature and poetry is something which is of vital importance in the development and refinement of emotions.
  • Original ideas are the product of one’s own regional language. On account of the facility of thought and expression, new and original ideas take birth and get shape only in one’s own mother tongue.

Thus regional languages play highly important role in the overall progress and development of the child. Though foreign languages like English and majoritarian languages like Hindi are important and must be taught during school years, care must be taken that these foreign languages do not replace or substitute the regional languages. Recognizing due importance of regional language in the education will only enhance the quality of education, make society more inclusive and preserve the diversity of India.

Topic: Infrastructure

7) Private partnership in affordable housing has potential to solve the urban housing problem but must be instilled with adequate safeguards. Comment. (200 Words)

The Wire


 ANS –

Introduction –

Housing for all by 2022 is an ambitious scheme of Government of India to make housing affordable and accessible to all socio-economic classes. But, it was facing the challenges of land acquisition and poor profit margins for private developers. With the aim of attracting private players in the affordable housing sector, the government has unfolded a new public-private partnership (PPP) policy with 8 new models.

Private partnership in affordable housing has potential to solve the urban housing problem as –

  1. Land acquisition – Land is the costliest commodity in real estate. Intensive utilization of private land through review of floor space index and floor area ratio norms to enable better utilisation of scarce urban land parcels. Minimizing cost of land bore by the developers and promoting them to invest in construction.
  2. Central assistance – Under the six government-land-based PPP models, beneficiaries can avail central assistance of Rs one lakh to Rs 2.5 lakh per house, as provisioned under different components of the PMAY (Urban). New credit linked subsidy scheme (PMAY) & reduced capital gains tax.
  3. Infrastructure status – this has improved this segment’s liquidity from assortment of funds. E.g. pension funds, insurance firm’s funds.
  4. Competition and transparency – better management, technology-use and transparent mechanisms.

Challenges and needed safeguards –

  1. Corruption, high costs, delayed completion of projects, forceful and deceitful land acquisitions should be prevented. Real Estate Regulatory Authority [RERA] should be involved to monitor situation and suggest policy improvements. CAG should also keep a strict watch on scheme implementation.
  2. Transparent and Online mechanism for time bound approvals for building plans and construction permits.
  3. Sustainable housing – safeguards regarding Disaster resilient infrastructure, less interference with ecosystem, safety of housing units from fire, earthquake, etc.
  4. Linking with AMRUT & SMART CITIES MISSION – to develop sustainable cities of which housing will be the main component.

Conclusion –

Better housing with the participation of private sector will give better standard of living. It will improve productivity of people thus producing better cities which will become “engines of inclusive economic growth”.



The six PPP-models using government lands are:

  1. The direct benefit transfer model: Under this option, private builders can design, build and transfer houses built on government land to public authorities. Government land is to be allocated based on the least cost of construction. Payments to builders will be made by the public authority based on progress, as per agreed upon milestones, and buyers will pay the government.
  2. Mixed development cross-subsidised housing: Government land to be allotted based on number of affordable houses to be built on the plot offered to private builders, cross subsidising this segment from revenues from high-end house building or commercial development.
  3. Annuity-based subsidised housing: Builders will invest against deferred annuity payments by the government. Land allocation to builders is based on unit cost of construction.
  4. Annuity-cum-capital-grant based affordable housing: Besides annuity payments, builders could be paid a share of the project cost as upfront payment.
  5. Direct relationship ownership housing: As against government-mediated payments to builders and transfer of houses to beneficiaries in the above four models, under this option, promoters will directly deal with buyers and recover costs. Allocation of public land is based on unit cost of construction.
  6. Direct relationship rental housing: Recovery of the costs by builders is through rental incomes from the houses built on government lands.

Under these six government-land-based PPP models, beneficiaries can avail central assistance of Rs one lakh to Rs 2.5 lakh per house, as provisioned under different components of the PMAY (Urban). Beneficiaries will be identified as per the norms of the PMAY (Urban).

Topic:  Basics of cybersecurity

8) What is Cyber deterrence? Highlight the need for India to have an effective cyber deterrence policy? Discuss. (200 Words)

The Wire


Background –

The failure of the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (UN-GGE) earlier this year to agree upon a universal set of norms to govern the use of cyberspace despite  the initial progress made by the same body in recent years. The 2015 report of the fourth UN-GGE had laid down a commendable framework for further discussion on the evolution of cyber norms. 

Cyber deterrence –

The concept of cyber deterrence is defined as the use of cyber threats (retaliatory) by one party to convince another party to refrain from initiating some course of action (cyber attack).  A threat serves as a deterrent to the extent that it convinces its target not to carry out the intended action because of the costs and losses that target would incur.

In conventional international security, a policy of deterrence generally refers to threats of military retaliation directed by the leaders of one state to the leaders of another in an attempt to prevent the other state from resorting to the threat of use of military force in pursuit of its foreign policy goals. Deterrence focuses on making potential adversaries think before attacking, forcing them to consider the costs of doing so as well as the consequences that might come from a counterattack.

The need for India to have an effective cyber deterrence policy –

  1. Lack of universal consensus – The main barrier to cohesive normative regulation is its global ubiquity, which has prevented the development of universal consensus because states differ in their economic and political ambitions. A second barrier is the ‘non-physical’ nature of cyber-warfare, which has made the task of applying traditional principles of international law a challenge.
  2. Need for strong posturing by India –  this would send a signal to the world that India not only has a credible deterrence strategy in place but also has the intent to act through the utilisation of cyberspace. This posturing could deter the kind of acts that have plagued the region recently  and lead to long-term stability.
  3. Push for digitization – increased digitization, digital economy, increased internet penetration in India.
  4. Increased threats at global level , e.g. cyber attacks from China.

Conclusion –

The adversary needs to perceive that India’s cyber capabilities  and its intent to act on them are enough to overcome any cyber-attack or unwarranted border provocation. This perception is the key to a stable future in digital South Asia.



Various forms of cyber deterrence –

  1. A credible threat of punishment due to retaliation – In the cyber sphere the problems of attributing an attack to a state or non-state actor and identifying precisely the number of adversaries and assets involved prevents the efficacy of punishment oriented retaliation. Traditional deterrence is relatively straightforward, since the threat is attributable and tangible. Cyber deterrence is intrinsically different: even if the opponent has significant cyber capability, that capability doesn’t stop one from attacking or probing for weaknesses. Unlike traditional deterrence, there is no obvious border to cross.
  2. Denial of gains due to a robust defence mechanism – the development of robust cyber defences can not only augment the capacity to thwart a cyber-attack and recover from it but also reduces the incentive to the attacker of carrying out the attack in the first place. This is where perception of a country’s resilience mechanism becomes crucial. If a potential attacker perceives that India’s Electronic Voting Machines or its Aadhaar database are protected by robust security mechanisms, it is far less likely to bear the costs of mounting such an attack given the low chances of success. 
  3. Entanglement of interests – it refers to interdependences which impose grave consequences both on the attacker and the victim.  In the cyber sphere, this entanglement could be mutual interest in the stability of the internet itself, which serves as the bedrock of cross-border trade, societal communication and domestic transactions in various economies.
  4. Deterrence by normative taboo – India’s normative push needs to pivot towards multilateralism and co-opt like-minded allies-through forums such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), BRICS and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), and bilaterally through engagement with allies such as Japan, United States, South Korea, Russia and Thailand, to concretise the preservation of the internet as the universal need of the hour.


Topic:  Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators

9) Explain some teachings of Swami Vivekananda that may be of imbibed in personal and professional life. (150 Words)

The Hindu


Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendra Nath Datta, was born in Kolkata on 12 January 1863. He played significant role in the growing Indian nationalism of the 19th and 20th century, reinterpreting and harmonising certain aspects of Hinduism. His teachings and philosophy applied this reinterpretation to various aspects of education, faith, character building as well as social issues pertaining to India, and was also instrumental in introducing Yoga to the west.

Some of the teachings of Swami Vivekananda that may be imbibed in personal and professional life-

  • ‘We want that education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded, and by which one can stand on one’s own feet-

He redefined the concept of education which was not limited to exploring means of earning only. For him education was way to build one’s character, strength, intellect etc. Such idea of education would help in evolving oneself as better person in both personal and public life.

  • ‘So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor who, having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them’-

This tells us that as a part of society every person is responsible for the welfare of poor and marginalized people. It emphasizes the need to have empathy and compassion for the weaker sections of the society.

  • ‘Strength, strength it is that we want so much in this life, for what we call sin and sorrow have all one cause, and that is our weakness. With weakness comes ignorance, and with ignorance comes misery’-

Swami Vivekananda stresses on the importance of being strong in the life. Weakness comes with number of difficulties for one in a life. Whether its personal goals or professional goals, a person need to be fearless and firm to achieve them.

  • ‘Purity, patience, and perseverance are the three essentials to success, and above all, love’-

Swami Vivekananda focuses on the values like Love, Patience, Perseverance in one’s life. This would increase the brotherhood and fraternity among the people, reduce conflicts among them and would bind the society as a whole.

  • ‘Have faith in yourselves, and stand up on that faith and be strong; that is what we need’-

Having faith on oneself is the most important. In order to live a good life, people make all sorts of efforts, but they forget to trust themselves, lack confidence and depend on supernatural powers to help them out of their miseries.

  • Swami revolutionized the meaning of religion. His meaning of religion had no place for superstitions, unending rituals and practices and religion that was adrift of spiritual content. His idea of religion was humane, did not have necessity of middlemen to connect with one’s god and did not have barriers of caste, community etc. Such progressive understanding of the religion would relieve people from wrong notions of religion and provide them with real spiritual upliftment.
  • Swami Vivekananda preached tolerance and peace for humankind. His idea of peace and tolerance was global and included people of all the religions and sects. If humans are to thrive and prosper, they need to tolerate the diversified views and strive for the prosperity of all.