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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

Topic:   The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country. 

1) Why was Bhagat Singh jailed and executed by the British? What implications did Bhagat Singh’s execution have on India’s national movement? Examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Indian has got the heritage of freedom fighters before it got the independence. Many freedom fighters sacrificed their lives in order get the freedom and martyr Bhagat Singh is one of them. Bhagat is known as one of the intelligent, aggressive and ambition-oriented people in the history of India who fought till his last breath. Following lines said by him explains much about his ideas.

‘Revolution’ does not necessarily involve sanguinary strife nor is there any place in it for individual vendetta. It is not the cult of the bomb and the pistol. By ‘Revolution’ we mean that the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice, must change.

                                                                                         : Bhagat Singh

Recent incidence:

Pakistani lawyer Mr. Qureshi is fighting to prove the legendary Indian freedom fighter Bhagat Singh’s innocence in a Lahore court. His petition wants the court to set aside the sentence of Singh by exercising principles of review and order the government to honour him with a state award.

Reasons for arrest and execution of Bhagat Singh:

Bhagat Singh was charged with attempt to murder under section 307 of the Indian Penal Code. On April 8, 1929, Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly “to make the deaf hear” as their leaflet described the reason for their act. Bomb was thrown to protest the repressive Public Safety Bill and Trades Dispute Bill and the arrest of 31 labour leaders in March 1929.

Bhagat Singh and Dutt were accused of throwing bombs ‘to kill or cause injuries to the King Majesty’s subjects’. The magistrate committed both of the revolutionaries’ to the session’s court, which was presided over by Judge Leonard Middleton.

Bhagat Singh was executed by the British after a sham trial for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case at the age of twenty-three on 23 March, 1931.

Implication of Bhagat Singh’s execution on Indian nation movement:

  • The arrest of Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt created the environment of new enthusiasm and energy in Indian national movement. The arrest was seen as an injustice by British government.
  • Bhagat Singh used his court appearances as a forum for revolutionary propaganda to advocate the revolutionaries’ point of view and, in the process, rekindle patriotic sentiments in the hearts of the people.
  • The revolutionaries’ strategy was to boycott the proceedings. They showed no interest in the trial and adopted an attitude of total indifference. They did not have any faith in the court and realized that the court had already made up its mind.
  • In his jail term Bhagat Singh and other revolutionaries tried hard to bring the prison reforms by method of fasting. This group was one of the first efforts in country with respect to prison reforms.
  • The execution of Bhagat Singh gave the socialistic colors to the INM along with ongoing efforts by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose as well.
  • Bhagat Singh’s arrest provided new Philip to the Indian press , both English and Vernacular. His act of throwing pamphlets in court marked the importance of clear information dissemination for success of any organised action.
  • Bhagat Singh’s execution attracted youth and peasant’s participation in Indian national movement.

Bhagat Singh in Indian National movement:

  • Bhagat Singh was an outstanding revolutionary and martyr of the Indian anti-colonial movement. He represented the youth who were dissatisfied with Gandhian politics and groped for revolutionary alternatives.
  • He became a confirmed atheist, socialist and communist. He realised that the overthrow of British rule should be accompanied by the socialist reconstruction of Indian society and for this political power must be seized by the workers.
  • Bhagat Singh was critical of the individual terrorism which was prevalent among the revolutionary youth of his time and realised the need for mass mobilisation by the Communist Party. In his final writings he argued that the HRA party had to organise the workers and the peasantry.
  • If we are to locate the role Bhagat Singh played within this movement, it is necessary to understand that Bhagat Singh was young man who because of his interest in studying and his keen sense of history gave to the revolutionary tradition a goal beyond the elimination of the British. A clarity of vision and determination of purpose distinguished Bhagat Singh from other leaders of the National Movement. He was the only alternative to Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, especially for the youth.


Even though Bhagat Singh’s methods were wrong, his dedication to a cause is worthy of emulation. His fearlessness came from an inner determination and was reinforced by his extensive reading. That too is worthy of being followed. Bhagat Singh himself would have frowned upon a jingoistic, non-nuanced adoption of any of our heroes. That may be the most important lesson of all for today’s young.


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

2) Is there any substance in China’s accusations that India is using anti-dumping measures as a form of trade war? Critically examine. Also comment on China’s accusations. (200 Words)


Binding tariffs and applying them equally to all trading partners (most-favoured-nation treatment, or MFN) are key to the smooth flow of trade in goods. The WTO agreements uphold the principles, but they also allow exceptions — in some circumstances. Three of these issues are:

  1. Actions taken against dumping (selling at an unfairly low price)
  2. Subsidies and special “countervailing” duties to offset the subsidies
  3. Emergency measures to limit imports temporarily, designed to “safeguard” domestic industries.

What is an ‘Anti-Dumping Duty?’

An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it believes are priced below fair market value. Dumping is a process where a company exports a product at a price lower than the price it normally charges on its own home market. To protect local businesses and markets, many countries impose stiff duties on products they believe are being dumped in their national market.

Part of the logic behind anti-dumping duties is to save domestic jobs, but they can also lead to higher prices for domestic consumers and reduce the international competition of domestic companies producing similar goods.

Role of World Trade Organization in regulating anti-dumping duties:

The World Trade Organization (WTO) operates a set of international trade rules. Part of the organization’s mandate is the international regulation of anti-dumping measures. The WTO does not regulate the actions of companies engaged in dumping. Instead, it focuses on how governments can or cannot react to dumping. In general, the WTO agreement allows governments to “act against dumping where there is genuine (material) injury to the competing domestic industry.” In other cases, the WTO intervenes to prevent anti-dumping measures.

This intervention is justified to uphold the WTO’s free market principles. Anti-dumping duties distort the market. Governments cannot normally determine what constitutes a fair market price for any good or service; fair market value is whatever price the market will bear as determined by supply and demand.

China acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001. It can be observed that the entry into the WTO has helped China in pursuing its ambitions: its share in global manufacturing increased from 2% in 1991 to 7.5% in 2001 to more than 23% in 2013.

Conditions for market economy status for China in Anti-dumping negotiations:

The accession of China in WTO came with a clause that China could be treated as a non-market economy in anti-dumping investigations if Chinese firms failed to establish that they operated under market economy conditions for a period of 15 years ending 11 December 2016 (Section 15(a) of China’s accession agreement). In case of failure by the Chinese firms to prove that they were operating in market economy conditions, the importing country could use alternative methodologies to compute the normal value and dumping margin of the imported goods.


  • This clause particularly creating conflicts in anti-dumping negotiations . India has clarified on multiple occasions that it needs to consider Chinese firms as operating in a non-market economy due to the significant direct or indirect control of the state in firms’ operations and input factors such as raw material, power, land, and labour.
  • Recently, China accused India of starting a trade war when the latter decided to extend anti-dumping duty on 93 products imported from China for another five years in August.
  • China often mentions the usage of these alternative methodologies, such as surrogate approach (third country reference production costs method) in particular, as discriminatory and unfair trade practice by India and many other countries.
  • China also saw the deadline of December 2016 as an automatic route to get market economy status signed and sealed by all the member countries of WTO. But as per WTO rules China can’t secure market economy status automatically unless and until it meets the criteria as defined in the national laws of WTO member countries, including India.
  • It has been observed that China is not operating in good faith and it changes its stand based on convenience. On the contrary India is pursuing anti-dumping investigations across the board depending on the merits of the case rather than just targeting any one particular country.
  • There are also chances that China may put pressure on bilateral ties with India in one to one relation or through other regional platforms such as BRICS.

India must hold the merit most in all cases as it always does. The culture of best practices and technicalities must prevail over biasness based on economic or political might of any WTO member such as China.

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

3) Discuss the geostrategic significance of the Mumbai-Ahmedabad bullet train deal to India and Japan. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Recent incidence:

India will start work on its first bullet train — the Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail (MAHSR) — on September 14. Funded by the Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA), this project will be the biggest change Indian Railways has witnessed in post-Independence India.

On expected lines there are huge economic benefits of this bullet train to India, but it also has the geo strategic connotation with respect to India Japan relation and overall Asian environment.

The geostrategic importance of Bullet trains is:

  1. The bullet train is symbol of strong trust between the India and Japan as it involves the technology transfer at the core of this deal. In the light of prospering India Japan bilateral relations this technological transfer highlights the cordial overtone of India Japan relationship.
  2. The battle to export bullet train technology is clearly reflective of the broader rivalry between China and Japan for influence in Asia. By Choosing the Japan over cheaper Chinese technology shows independent stand taken by India.
  3. The bullet train will create substantial positive impact on Indian economy thus building the economic influence of country in Asia and thus all over the world.
  4. In longer duration of time, this technology will reduce the dependence of India on Middle East countries for oil and other fuel products.
  5. Being the clean technology India will set an example for cleaner methods for mass transportation, especially for other developing countries.
  6. For Japan too, this deal has geostrategic meaning. Earlier Japan has lost with China in export of Bullet trains in Thailand and Indonesia. This deal is diplomatic win for Japan.

Economic benefits of bullet train:

  1. 1. The Japan external trade organisation or JETRO will be assisting the Indian government in identifying potential areas for ‘Make In India’ localisation. Indian industry will gain further experience in managing large projects. A network of mid- and small-size enterprises will come up to support this manufacturing process and the ecosystem will eventually tap new Indian HSR requirements and export market possibilities.
  2. The trickle-down effects of opening avenues for cheaper housing, logistics hubs, and industrial units along the route will benefit smaller towns and cities.
  3. Construction activity will boost allied industries such as steel, cement and infrastructure. This will translate into additional logistics and warehousing demand.
  4. Managing a project of this complexity and scale will be a great learning experience for the Indian agencies involved, resulting in skill development.

The low cost loan provided by Japan for this infrastructure project will save huge cost from Indian side. In geostrategic point of view, both India and Japan has inked this pact by sidelining the mighty China and its all-time assertive strategies. The time is yet to come to make comment on success of this project, yet a hope has been generated that, the high speed train will strengthen the India Japan relations as well.


Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations; Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4) Examine how the Trump administration’s new Afghanistan policy has been received by Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. (200 Words)

The Hindu

What is new Afghan policy of USA?

As per the new policy, USA has vowed to win the war in Afghanistan by committing more US troops and also called on NATO allies such as Britain to increase troop numbers “in line with our own”.

USA has claimed that a withdrawal of personnel would leave a power vacuum that to be filled by terrorists, as has happened in Iraq.

There is proposed possibility that up to 4,000 additional US troops would be deployed to the country to combat a resurgent Taliban and the growing number of Islamic State fighters in the country.

For USA administration’s new policy went beyond just Afghanistan and was a full “South Asia strategy”.

USA has sent a clear message against the terrorist organisation that is getting protection in Pakistan soil. USA clearly mentioned that Islamabad should do more to combat the growth of extremism in the region.

Analysis of countries reaction over this policy: 


Afghanistan has welcomed this policy by calling it the requirement of existing complicated conditions in the region. Afghanistan has also mentioned that there is need to upgrade this issue to the regional level by involving other countries such as Russia Iran and China.

As per the Afghan official resources, country has always welcomed the Indian role in building its strength and stabilizing its institutions.

As this policy hits the main issue of Safe havens of terror in Pakistan, Afghanistan has supported this policy as a possible solution to this problem.


India continues to confirm its strong presence in Afghanistan matters by using its inherent soft powers. This relation has helped India to criticised terrorism from international forum as well.

There is huge scope for India to work with Afghanistan in terms of expertise that India can provide in democratic institutional management and civil services establishments.

In the light of recent Doklam standoff and BRICS summit India needs to leverage its best diplomatic skills while dealing with Afghanistan as Afghanistan is not just corridor to central Asia but also the emerging nation in Asian continent which India must continue and enhance its bilateral relations.

On same time there are very miniscule chances that India will send physical troups in Afghanistan being not any part of military alliance.

India has been very active for the past 17 years and even before that, so it is important that is now being recognised. Then the focus on the peace process and the condition, not time-based, approach gives it a higher chance of success than previous (U.S.) policies.


Pakistan’s lower house of parliament has unanimously passed a resolution calling on the government to consider suspending supply lines to the US-led NATO mission in neighbouring Afghanistan in response to recent US accusations that the country is harbouring armed groups.

Pakistan denies that it offers sanctuary to any armed groups, including the Afghan Taliban and the Haqqani Network, and the government and military have rejected USA Trump’s strategy in an official statement.

The resolution also urged the government to review all cooperation with the United States, including the use of air and ground supply routes by NATO troops in Afghanistan.

While the US-led military alliance has developed alternative supply routes to Afghanistan, the bulk of its logistical and military supplies are still routed through Pakistan. The document also called on the government to “consider the postponement of any visits by US delegations to Pakistan or by Pakistani delegations/officials to the USA”.


The various officials stance about new policy of United States of America are result of geo political aspects of todays as well as decade old challenges. There is rising international resistance against terrorism, Asia being the important region in this global agenda against terrorism needs a better level of regional cooperation as well.


Topic: Conservation 

5) Write a critical note on animal diversity in the Sundarban islands and the threats they face. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Introduction :- The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, considered one of the natural wonders of the world, it was recognised in 1997 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Bangladeshi and Indian parts of the Sundarbans, while in fact adjacent parts of the uninterrupted landmark, have been listed separately in the UNESCO World Heritage List: as “Sundarbans” and “Sundarban National Park”respectively. The Sundarbans are a network of marine streams, mud shores and mangrove forests. The region is known to contain numerous species of animals, birds and reptiles, including Royal Bengal Tiger, Chital Deer, Crocodile and Snakes . On 21 May 1992, the Sundarbans was recognized as a Ramsar Site of ecological importance.


  • The Sundarbans provides a unique ecosystem and a rich wildlife habitat. According to the 2015 tiger census in Bangladesh, and the 2011 tiger census in India, the Sundarbans have about 180 tigers (106 in Bangladesh and 74 in India).
  • There is much more wildlife here than just the endangered Bengal tiger(Panthera tigris tigris). Most importantly, mangroves are a transition from the marine to freshwater and terrestrial systems, and provide critical habitat for numerous species of small fish, crabs, shrimps and other crustaceans that adapt to feed and shelter, and reproduce among the tangled mass of roots, known as pneumatophores, which grow upward from the anaerobic mud to get the supply of oxygen. Fishing cats, macaques, wild boars, common grey mongooses, foxes, jungle cats, flying foxes, pangolins, and spotted deer are also found in abundance in the Sundarbans.
  • A 1991 study has revealed that the Indian part of the Sundarbans supports diverse biological resources including at least 150 species of commercially important fish, 270 species of birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 reptiles and 8 amphibian species, although new ones are being discovered. This represents a significant proportion of the species present in Bangladesh (i.e. about 30% of the reptiles, 37% the birds and 34% of the mammals) and includes many species which are now extinct elsewhere in the country. Two amphibians, 14 reptiles, 25 aves and five mammals are endangered. The Sundarbans is an important wintering area for migrant water birds and is an area suitable for watching and studying avifauna.


Natural hazards

  • According to a report created by UNESCO, the landfall of Cyclone Sidrdamaged around 40% of Sundarbans in 2007.

Man made hazards

·         In August 2010, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) and India’s state-owned National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) where they designated to implement the coal-fired Rampal power station by 2016. The proposed project, on an area of over 1,834 acres of land, is situated 14 kilometres north of the Sundarbans. This project violates the environmental impact assessment guidelines for coal-based thermal power plants.

·         On 9 December 2014 an oil-tanker named Southern Star VII, carrying furnace oil, was sunk in the Sela river of Sundarbans after it had been hit by a cargo vessel.

  • Overfishing :The global overfishing crisis facing the world’s oceans has effects far beyond the directly overfished population. Sundarban is no exception. The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered.
  • Pollution:Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man-made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests, while oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees.
  • Climate change: Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change.

Sundarban represents an unique biodiversity system in Indian Environment. The rich faunal diversity constitute a pristine and delicate part of its forest. Addressing its concerns, threats should be the priority in order to preserve this specious diversity.


Topic: Indian economy – growth and development

6) What do the latest numbers on national income indicate? How can India bounce back? Discuss. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Introduction :- About a week ago, the Central Statistics Office (CSO) released the estimates of the gross domestic product (GDP) for the first quarter (April-June) of 2017-18. The numbers showed that in Q1 of 2017-18, GDP grew by 5.7%. Gross value added (GVA) at basic prices grew by 5.6%.

By the third quarter of 2016-17, the growth rate had declined to 6.7%. Since then it has fallen by another 0.9 percentage point.

The most disappointing aspect of the first quarter numbers is the steep fall in the growth rate of manufacturing to 1.2%. 


  • One of the arguments attributed to the low growth rate is the poor performance of the external sector. Growth is fuelled broadly by two types of demand, domestic and external. High export growth has propelled the growth rate of many countries, including China’s. 
  • India’s declining growth rate has also coincided with poor export performance. Export demand has been weak because of the tepid growth rate of the advanced economies.
  • The fundamental problem has been the sharp fall in the investment rate. Gross fixed capital formation rate stood at 34.3% in 2011-12. This started falling steadily and touched 29.3% in 2015-16. It fell further to 27.1% in 2016-17.
  • According to the latest numbers, in the first quarter of 2017-18, it stood at 27.5%. Since the public investment rate has not shown any decline (it stands at 7.5% of GDP), it is the decline in private investment, both corporate and households, that has been responsible for the steady fall. 
  • Deep concerns have been expressed about the fact that the growth that we have seen in recent years has not resulted in an increase in employment. The current period has therefore been described as one of ‘jobless growth’. 


  • Growth can occur because of two reasons. One, it results from better utilisation of existing capacity. Two, it can come out of new investment.
  • Creating an appropriate investment climate, reforms play an important role. Some of the noteworthy changes that have happened in the last few years are the passing of the bankruptcy code and GST legislation, and modifications in FDI rules.
  • Financing investment has taken a beating because of the poor health of banks. To resolve the non-performing asset (NPA) problem, banks need to take a haircut. To bring banks back to good health, recapitalisation has become urgent. 
  • Economic Survey speak about creative solutions need to be devised to strengthen institutions relating to bankruptcy to ensure that exit options are available for failing companies. The survey suggests setting up of a high-powered Independent Renegotiation Committee.
  • A close look must be taken at stalled projects to see what can be done to revive those which are viable. 
  • Even though the progress of small and medium industries is very much dependent on the fortunes of the large, a separate look at medium and small enterprises may be needed to prod them into new investment.
  • Economic SURVEY HAS POINTED Out revival of public investments in the short-term to act as an engine of growth in infrastructure sector which in a way will revive growth rate.
  • Given the importance of infrastructure development and manufacturing in our economy, the government can play an important role of being a catalyst in kick-starting growth in the sectors.


Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. 

7) Lower international crude oil prices should have led to lower domestic fuel prices even under the free pricing regime in India. Why has it not happened? Critically examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Introduction :- Brent crude prices dropped to a three-month low on 14 March to $51 a barrel.

In general, the drop in crude oil prices should lead to a decline in global petroleum product prices as well. However its not the case.


  • Indian government is skimming away the price difference by means of higher taxation. So even though the crude prices have seen a free-fall, the retail prices in India still does not reflect it in full. Excise duty and value added tax are the main culprits in this regard. In fact, about half the price paid by the Indian end-consumer for petrol goes towards paying these taxes. 
  • There are other serious reasons for the government to keep petrol prices up. The environment is one of them. To move to Euro V,  oil companies will have to spend a great deal to upgrade their refineries and a cess on Diesel would help pay for that.Hence keeping oil prices high is one option.
  • the other reason to keep petrol and diesel prices high is that this low-price regime is not going to last forever. Without too much discussion on the reasons for the current glut of oil and its low prices, suffice to say that low economic growth in China, India and the EU, along with a deliberate OPEC policy to discourage further US investment in oil fracking, is not going to last forever.

Impact on India

  • Low crude prices mean India, which imports more than 80% of its oil and gas requirements, could get to save more than Rs. 2 lakh crore this year on import payments
  • While low crude prices have meant good cheer for the average consumer, as retail prices have been coming down, high excise has meant that the exchequer too has benefited, at the consumer’s cost
  • A depreciation in the rupee too has meant that the gains from the price fall have been nullified to a large extent.
  • Government owned explorer ONGC, which drills crude offshore, has been hit hard, and could be staring at losses
  • Oil marketing companies too have had to suffer significant inventory losses

Conclusion :- An alternative tax such as the goods and services tax (GST), even at its highest slab of 28%, would substantially lower the current tax burden on fuels. Apart from making petrol and diesel more affordable to many more people in the lower rungs of the economy, it will also decrease the economic distortions caused by extraordinarily high taxes imposed on automobile fuels that are widely used. Along with lower taxes, greater competition in the fuel retailing market will allow further cost efficiencies to kick in and lead to lower prices for consumers.


Topic:   ethical issues in international relations 

8) Is it morally and legally imperative for India to not to deport Rohingyas? Critically examine. (150 Words)

The Indian Express


Introduction :– The Rohingya people are a Muslim minority group residing in the Rakhine state, formerly known as Arakan and are considered to be a variation of the Sunni religion. The Rohingya people are considered “stateless entities”, as the Myanmar government has been refusing to recognise them as one of the ethnic groups of the country. For this reason, the Rohingya people lack legal protection from the Government of Myanmar, are regarded as mere refugees from Bangladesh, and face strong hostility in the country. They often described by Amnesty International as one of the most persecuted people on earth. To escape the dire situation in Myanmar, the Rohingya try to illegally enter Southeast Asian states like Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia, begging for humanitarian support from potential host countries.

The latest exodus began on August 25, after Rohingya insurgents attacked police posts in Rakhine, leading to a violent offensive by the Myanmar Army.

  • India also faces the problem of Rohingyas fleeing into the states bordering Myanmar.
  • The government has said it would deport all Rohingyas living in India illegally but the Supreme Court has said that it will hear a plea seeking a direction to the central government not to deport about 40,000 such refugees back to Myanmar.

India’s tough stand on deporting Rohingyas back to Rakhine State in the midst of the ongoing violence has evoked criticism from national and international human rights activists.


YES :-

  • India holds a strong history of welcoming refugees from Srilanka, Tibet, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and still they enjoy the freedom and rights here. The Rohingyas are now the most genocided community in recent past in South Asia, they are stateless and no place got to go.
  • not only as a major power in the region but also as the largest democracy in the world, there are expectations that India should extend help to the fleeing Rohingya, at least on humanitarian grounds, and contribute to help resolve the conundrum. 
  • India is obligated to help the Rohingya because Myanmar is virtually controlled by the military.
  • Since the refugees have no home to return to right now, New Delhi must show some magnanimity
  • The refugees have to face the same situations like in the past if India sends them back, which will question India’s policies in the global front. It considered as will rather die in India than return to Myanmar for Rohingyans.
  • Indian government, like any other in the world, is bound by customary international law to respect the principle of non-refoulement. No government, as per this law, can forcibly push back asylum-seekers to the country they have fled to escape violence, as it might endanger their very survival. Not being a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol is no excuse to abdicate India’s responsibility to provide much-needed succour to people under duress and in urgent need of humanitarian assistance.
  • The Right to Life under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution has been so interpreted by the SC that it can be extended to anyone living in India irrespective of her nationality.

NO :-

  • 16500 Rohingya refugees in India holds United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)’s identity card and India consider it as irrelevant, and as far as they are illegal immigrants to India, they will be subjected to deport.
  • The Indian government’s first and foremost responsibility is towards the safety and security of their own citizens. The decision to deport Rohingya refugees from India has nothing to do with religious discrimination, it has been taken in the interest of law enforcement in Indian territory.
  • The Indian government is not obliged to settle illegal immigrants because it never made any such commitments to the international community. The decision is absolutely Constitutional.
  • Adding to this, recently an insurgent group – Haraquah Al-Yaqin formed in Saudi Arabia commanded by Rohingyas on the ground with tactical training and guerrilla operation skills. India had a history of Lankan refugee issue which eventually ended up in the Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.
  • Along with security issue, it may lead to political, governance and economic problems in the country
  • As far as India shunning the Rohingya is concerned, it is one thing to show sympathy and another to disregard India’s own internal concerns.

What can be done :-

  • The countries of South and Southeast Asia need to ponder whether it is rational to push Rohingya refugees back to violence-torn Myanmar.
  • Regional countries need to take into account the fact that the Rohingya crisis is not just Myanmar’s internal problem; rather, its spill over effect into their own territories is already evident.
  • Myanmar should create a congenial atmosphere so that they can be returned with dignity
  • There should be sincere efforts to bring some peace for the most persecuted and tortured Rohingya community.
  • In addition to being active in the social media, the conscious sections of the society should think of doing something meaningful for this helpless and hapless community.
  • Without addressing the root cause of the problem, it will only add to the misery of the Rohingya people.


Conclusion :- The statelessness of the Rohingyas and the lack of empathy towards the plight of the Rohingyas have contributed to the adoption of extremist methods by them. If not addressed pragmatically, the Rohingya crisis will only cause more violence, leading to more refugees and chronic instability in the region. India needs to take a leading position to pressurise Myanmar as well as to go extra mile to address the Rohingya issue in its own territory. It is time India rises to the occasion by transcending the politics of pragmatism and embraces the Rohingya refugees.


Topic:    Quality of service delivery

9) Explain how e-governance can enhance  quality of service delivery in public offices. (150 Words)



Introduction :-

Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.


E-government involves using ICTs to transform both back-end and front-end government processes and provides services, information and knowledge to the public.

The emergence of Information and Communication Technology has provided means for faster and better communication, efficient storage, retrieval and processing of data and exchange and utilization of information to its users, be they individuals, groups, businesses, organizations or governments.

One of the most important arguments in favor of e-government reform is that it raises the internal or production efficiency of public institutions, thus saving taxpayer’s money.


E-governance can play a critical role in improving the services quality delivered to its customers as it can achieve survival, increase satisfaction and trust and then generate the competitive success for organizations.

The effect of new ICT can make a significant contribution to the achievement of good governance goals and E-governance platforms are the key instruments that ensuring good governance by increasing transparency, accountability, reducing corruptions and eventually helping to reduce the cost of government business operations.