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Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 3 : 31 July 2017 – 06 August, 2017


I-Learning Test 3 : 31 July 2017 – 06 August 2017


  1. Regulation of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms



‘Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989’, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 define five competent authorities for such regulation.

  • These are the Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBSC), Review Committee of Genetic Manipulation (RCGM), Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC) and District Level Committee (DLC) for handling of various aspects of GMO rules.
  • GEAC is an apex body constituted in the MoEFCC.

Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBSCs): Its main function is to note, examine and approve proposals involving r-DNA work; to ensure adherence of r-DNA Safety Guidelines- 1990 of Government and inspection of containment facilities at R&D and production units.

Review Committee of Genetic Manipulation (RCGM): Main functions of RGCM are:

  • To bring out manuals of guidelines specifying producers for regulatory process on GMOs in research, use and applications including in industry with a view to ensure environmental safety.
  • To review all on going r-DNA projects involving high risk category and controlled field experiments
  • To lay down producers for restriction or prohibition, production, sale, import & use of GMOs both for research and applications.
  • To authorize imports of GMOs/ transgenes/ transgenic seeds for research purposes.

Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) is a common occurrence, and so will not be covered here.



  1. International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)


  • It is one of the largest animal welfare and conservation charities in the world.
  • The group’s declared mission is to “rescue and protect animals around the world.
  • IFAW was founded by a small group of people in 1969, to stop the commercial hunt for seal pups in Canada.
  • With projects in more than 40 countries, IFAW provides hands-on assistance to wildlife and livestock, in the wake of disasters.
  • As a nonprofit organization that is exempt from federal taxation




  1. Investment in India by NRIs


As per a regulation of Foreign Exchange Management (Transfer or issue of Security by a person resident outside India) Regulations, 2000:

  • NRIs may invest in shares or partly paid up shares of an Indian company under Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Scheme subject to certain terms and conditions.
  • NRIs may even acquire securities or units on a Stock Exchange in India on repatriation basis (i.e. they can take the investment back abroad) under the Portfolio Investment Scheme.
  • NRIs even hold FCNR deposits in India banks that earn them interest. We will cover the concept of FCNR in coming pieces.

Source: DSM/SBS/KA (Release ID :169208)



  1. Chemical conservation approaches by ASI



Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act – 2010 provides for the preservation of ancient and historical monuments, archaeological sites, and remains of national importance and also provides penalty against acts of human vandalism.

General cleaning of monuments, mud pack cleaning, removal of calcareous deposits and accretions, bio-cide treatment, consolidation and water repellent treatment, are some of the known ways of chemical treatment. 

Other methods of cleaning: Mud Pack Cleaning is used for the cleaning of plain and decorated marble surface.

  • This method is being used successfully for the conservation of Taj Mahal and other marble structures.
  • Very dilute mixture of ammonia solution and a non ionic detergent is used for the easy removal of accretions and biological growth with mild brushing.
  • Bleaching powder slurry in aqueous medium is used to remove micro-vegetation from lime plastered surface.




  1. Importance of Kanchi in Ancient India




Once a capital of the Pallava dynasty, Kanchipuram was also a noted centre of learning for Tamil and Sanskrit scholars. Dinganaga, a Buddhist writer came to study at Kanchi.

  • Ghatika at Kanchi was an ancient centre of leaning attracting students from India and abroad.
  • Founder of the Kadamba dynasty, Mayurasarman, studied Vedas at Kanchi.
  • Dharmapala, who later became the Head of the Ancient Nalanda University, belonged to Kanchi.
  • It was known as the religious capital of the Southern India.
  • Kanchi hosts Kailasanatha which is one of the largest and most ornate ancient temples in the whole of India. It hosts many other temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu.
  • Kanchi was also the home of the famous 6th century CE poet Bharavi who wrote the Kiratarjuniya and the famous 11th to 12th century CE Hindu philosopher Ramanuja.
  • It is also noted for its production of fine silk saris.

Source: Additional Research: Page 118: TN 11th Standard Textbook