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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic:  Role of women; Social empowerment

1) Do you think these is a need to broaden our narrative on sexual violence against women in India? Substantiate. (200 Words) 

The Hindu

The World Health Organization defines violence as:

“The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development or deprivation”.

Violence against women is a worldwide yet still hidden problem. Freedom from the threat of harassment, battering, and sexual assault is a concept that most of us have a hard time imagining because violence is such a deep part of our cultures and our lives. Violence against women is woven into the fabric of society to such an extent that many of us who are victimized feel that we are at fault. Many of those who perpetrate violence feel justified by strong societal messages that say that rape, battering, sexual harassment, child abuse, and other forms of violence are acceptable.

Need to broaden the view as:

  • WHO has declared violence against women both a public health problem and a violation of human rights.
  • It is a global issue that cuts across all geographic, social, cultural and ethnic boundaries.
  • In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman’s personhood, mental or physical integrity, or freedom of movement through individual acts and societal oppression. It includes all the ways our society objectifies and oppresses women.
  • Every form of violence threatens all women and limits our ability to make choices about our lives. Sexual violence is particularly insidious because sexual acts are ordinarily and rightly a source of pleasure and communication.
  • It is often unclear to a woman who has been victimized and to society as a whole whether a sexual violation was done out of sexual desire or violent intent or whether these motivations are even distinguishable, because violence itself has come to be seen as sexual.
  • The effects of violence can remain with women and children for a lifetime, and can pass from one generation to another. Studies show that children who have witnessed, or been subjected to, violence are more likely to become victims or abusers themselves.

Legal protection in India:

According to India’s Constitution, sexual harassment infringes the fundamental right of a woman to gender equality under Article 14 of the Constitution of India and her right to life and live with dignity under Article 21 of the Constitution. Although there is no specific law against sexual harassment at workplace in India but many provisions in other legislations protect against sexual harassment, such as


Section 294: Obscene acts and songs, to the annoyance of others like: Does any obscene act in any public place or sings, recites or utters any obscene song, ballad or words in or near any public place. Punishment imprisonment for a term up to 3 months or fine, or both (Cognizable, bailable and triable offense)

Section 354: Assault or use of criminal force on a woman with intent to outrage her modesty. 2 years imprisonment or fine, or both

Section 376: Rape. Imprisonment for life or 10 years and fine

Section 510: Uttering any word or making any gesture intended to insult the modesty of a woman. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both (Cognizable and bailable offense)

What can be done?

  • Getting the Evidence: Data on Violence against Women
  • Strengthening Multi-sectorial Services for Survivors
  • Preventing Violence against Women and Girls
  • Strengthening Partnerships
  • improving the knowledge base for ending violence against women


Sexual Harassment of women is violation of the women’s right. Only few complaint but many of them remain silent due to the fear of the society. In this case not only society violates but by remaining silent the victim herself violates her right. Even though there are many legislations which helps to prevent such harassment of the women but still they are increasing in number specially in the work place and with female child, thus to prevent the crime it is very important to change the thinking pattern of the society by treating and giving the women’s and men’s at a equal status.

In order to protect women’s from such crime it is very important to introduce various programmes in order to protect themselves from such sexual harassment in the employment places, in schools, in colleges, in any place by any person known, or stranger, to introduce human rights in the syllabus, and to spread the awareness of human rights amongst the people, to give teachings of loving kindness, equality and humanity.






Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

2) In your opinion, what are the lessons that state governments should learn from recent Gorakhpur medical tragedy? Critically examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

The recent Gorakhpur strategy is unfortunate result of existing loopholes in the health infrastructure.



Topic:  India and its neighborhood- relations. 

3) What are the issues that have created the anti-India feeling in Nepal? Has India succeeded in addressing these issues? Critically examine. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

The India Nepal relations have been at its zenith from historical times. The very geography and demographic similarities of these countries has made their bilateral relations very warm.

Background of India Nepal relations:

  • The Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950 is a bilateral treaty between Nepal and India establishing a close strategic relationship between the two South Asian neighbours.
  • India also helped Nepal in the construction of the Kingdom’s first airport at Kathmandu.
  • India and Nepal planned the harnessing of Himalayan Rivers. There were Indian aid and corporation activities in areas such as road building, airport construction, telecommunications, horticulture, agriculture, forestry, education and health.
  • The two countries are working through Joint Technical Level India-Nepal Boundary Committee on a time bound programme for identification of boundary.

Contemporary issues in Nepal India relations:

Cross-border marriage among the people living on either side of the border, contributing to weakening of enter-ethnic bond inside Nepal while creating an ever widening networks of cross border matrimonial relations often theorised as the relation based on ‘Roti and Betis’ (bread and daughters). Many people see this contributing to alienation rather than integration of ethnic-cultural integration among the hill and the Terai people.

Strong belief in Nepal that India wants to capture Nepal’s natural resources, including water resources has resulted into Anti-Indian feeling. From the days of the Koshi and Gandak Agreements, this feeling remains etched in the Nepalese conscience and India has failed to create an exemplary model of mutually beneficial projects in water resource sharing.

The unresolved border dispute between Nepal-India has also remained one of the reasons for the fueling of anti-Indian sentiments at the people’s level.

Despite the huge material assistance which India commits to Nepal annually and the contribution she has made in Nepal’s democratic struggle, the general Nepalese feel that the burden of India’s hegemony over Nepal outweighs her gestures of good will.

The use of anti-Indian feeling by political parties for their own benefits has led to the worsening of This issue. Nepal needs to balance its relation with India and China simultaneously. Sandwiched between two emerging powers, Nepal could not afford to tilt towards India without displeasing China – an emerging power in the north, which was equally sensitive about its southern security.

The Indian stance on the constitution and the economic blockade that followed the Madhesi protests after September 2015 are the two issues that created the anti-India feeling in Nepal.

The Nepali people were denied a role in “deciding” crucial issues. This is the singular reason for the people’s lack of ownership in the current constitution. Much of the radical agenda originally belonged to the Maoists, but was adopted by the leaderships of the Nepali Congress and the Madhesi groups. This is also the part of rising mistrust between two countries.



Topic:  Indian economy

4) How will farm loan waivers impact the Indian economy? Examine. (200 Words)


Recent incidence:

In its policy statement released last week, the monetary policy committee (MPC) of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) pointed out that the implementation of farm loan waivers across states could hurt the finances of states and make them throw good money after bad, and stoke inflation.

Impacts of loan waivers on economy:

  1. Loan waivers could reduce aggregate demand by as much as 0.7 per cent of GDP, imparting a significant deflationary shock to an economy. It is estimated that for states with fiscal space, loan waivers would add about Rs 6,350 crore to demand via the additional interest costs. For states without such space, waivers could reduce demand by about Rs 1.9 lakh crore.
  2. Loan waiving leads to disruption of credit discipline of state economies which has already burden of fiscal deficit. The culture of subsidy and loan waiving has spillover effect as the further demands on free water and electricity also rises and get publicized. According to market economists, waiving off farm loan would create unnecessary fiscal stress and give wrong signal about reform.
  3. There is big challenge of High exclusion errors in loan wavier scheme as according to CAG 13.46% of the accounts are not eligible for loan waving. Inefficiency of MFIs in identifying actual beneficiaries needs to be corrected in order to avoid wastage of exchequers money.
  4. Loan waiving adds up to the non-performing assets of the banks.
    1. Outstanding agricultural loan
  5. Types of bank Outstanding loan amount
  • Commercial banks Rs 9.57 lakh crore
  1. Regional Rural Banks Rs 1.45 lakh crore
  2. Cooperative banks               Rs 1.57 lakh crore
  1. Loan waiving is generally declared by political parties for electoral gains. The very purpose of waiving is unjustified and the needs a review of overall waiving process.
  2. The extreme case of 50% farm debt waiver should raise concerns as it will worsen states’ debt-to-GDP ratio by 4 percentage points on average. This will jeopardize India’s stated aim to reduce its total public debt, Centre and states combined, to 60% of the GDP.
  3. Interest payments of states are already quite high, and often eclipse their spending on important infrastructure areas such as roads and irrigation. Over the long run, the increased interest burden due to higher debt will hit state finances.
  4. In many areas the vested interest are getting satisfied by diverting the loan money for some other purposes other than agriculture. Borrowers often turn into willful defaulters hoping their loans will be waived in next elections, at the same time benefiting rich farmer more than poor ones. It also undermines the morality of honest farmers who repay their debts timely.

Arguments in favor of loan waiving:

  1. As the monsoon rains are highly erratic the small and marginal farmers left with no means of livelihood in case of monsoon failure.
  2. The very nature of Indian agriculture makes the act of loan waiving as essential tool for social security. Large number of small and marginal farmers with inability to capital investment makes loan waiver a social compulsion. According to NCRB report, debt and bankruptcy are behind 80% of farmers suicides. Hence making loan waiving a welcoming move to combat the distressful situation of rising farmers suicides.
  3. Lack of common market and assurance of guaranteed income makes farmers vulnerable to economic challenges.
  4. Large number of farmers are moving out of the agriculture and entering into distress employment that further creates pressure on employment in other sectors of economy. Every hour, according to Census 2011, around 100 farmers are giving up agriculture and at least one farmer is committing suicide.


Waiving of loans should be done only in the most exceptional circumstances. Waiving of loans of farmers has helped the farmers save from many untoward incidents. Instead of waiving loans govt should focus on increasing the output of the farmers which in turn would generate more income for the farmers. Waiving of loans is a short term solution and may not solve the problem fully. There in need of focus more towards advancement of agriculture sector by schemes like Pradhan Mantri Krishi Vikas Yojana, PM Fasal Bima Yojana, promote research & development in agriculture.


Topic: Security issues

5) Critically comment on India’s approach to its national security. (200 Words)


Ans –

National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the nation-state through the use of economic, military and political power and the exercise of diplomacy. The concept developed mostly in the USA after World War II. Initially focusing on military might, it now encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the military or economic security of the nation and the values espoused by the national society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as nation states but also non-state actors such as terrorist organizations, narcotic cartels and multi-national organizations; some authorities including natural disasters and events causing severe environmental damage in this category.

India’s national security –

National security broadly includes external security and internal security. There is another dimension of national security which is social cohesion and harmony. 

  1. Beyond Pakistan and China, we did not perceive any external threat to our security.
  2. Other threats such as communal conflicts, terrorism, naxalism or maoist violence, drug peddling and Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) were bundled together under the label “threats to internal security” and were left to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  3. Some threats were not acknowledged at all as threats to national security and these included energy security, food security and pandemics. This is the third dimension of national security.

Defending and promoting India’s national security stands on three important pillars: firstly, human resources; secondly, science and technology; and thirdly, money.

  1. Human resources –

There is shortage of officers. The armed forces are no longer among the coveted career options for the young (and especially urban) Indians. While increasing pay might narrow the gap, the real reason for the shortages is that the profession is losing its erstwhile positioning in Indian society.


  1. Science and technology –

None of the threats to national security can be effectively countered unless we embrace science and technology and impart instruction in science and technology beginning at the school level. There are four physical domains – land, sea, air and cyber-space.

  • We have a land border of a length of about 15,000 km with Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Bangladesh and Myanmar, and even a small length of 106 km with Afghanistan. We patrol these borders using a variety of measures – from sophisticated radars to camel-mounted border guards. Because only border guarding forces are in place, and hardly any technology is employed, it is widely acknowledged that the borders are porous.
  • We also have a long coastline extending to 7516 km. It is only after the Mumbai terror attack that we took steps to strengthen coastal security. However, given the thousands of boats – small and big – that are in the waters off the west coast, the threats to security still remain quite high. On the waters off the east coast, there is virtually no force other than the Navy. 
  • In the air, we rely on the Air Force. This is perhaps the most technology-driven arm of the Defence Forces. 
  • Apart from land, sea, air and space, there is another domain which is cyber space. Much of our critical infrastructure lies in cyber space. Only recently, we made a modest beginning to build capacity to counter threats in cyber space.


  1. Money –

It is also the pillar that will support the first two pillars. Money comes out of growth. The revenues of Government are tax revenue and non-tax revenue. 

We are not ploughing in more funds into R&D, especially R&D that is related to national security.

The spending on internal security is eating into our war chest against poverty, illiteracy, sanitation, climate change, infrastructure development, self-sufficiency in food, energy and ironically even defence.

India’s lethargic approach towards national security –

  1. Dependence on world-markets -Urgent equipment purchases, which have to be effected in times of war, kill the life cycle required for indigenous production or even adaptation of those technologies. That is why India is able to build sophisticated space-capable missiles, but unable to develop an all-purpose, fully satisfactory, assault rifle. The former technology was denied to us for decades and we were forced to develop it, while the latter could be purchased off-the-shelf from world markets in every war-like situation.


  1. Dire deficiencies in our arsenals, battle equipment, manpower and war reserves – Our Air Force, for instance, has been tasked for a two-front war, for which they projected a need for 45 squadrons that was whittled down to 42 by the ministry of defence, of which only 33 squadrons are available. These too are fast dwindling as over 10 squadrons of the ageing MIGs are due for retirement within the next seven years. 


  1. Slow pace of Indigenization of equipments – example : The indigenous manufacture of the main battle tank Arjun got the green light in 1974. Four decades later, this bloated project has overshot its timeline by decades and cost overruns by several quanta, but so far barely two of India’s 64 armoured regiments have been equipped with this tank.

Conclusion –

The need is to improve National security framework by developing bleeding edge technologies, use of Big data analysis, R and D in defence along with modernization of defense forces, indigenization of equipments, munition provisions, empowering state police with better technology and modern trainings, etc. This can help in creating a safe environment for Peaceful growth of India and realizing its global aspirations of super power.



Topic: Agriculture issues

6) Examine how can agri-futures market help farmers in India. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

Introduction :-  ‘Future contracts’ are, thus, standardised contracts to buy or sell a quantity of a standard quality of a commodity. These are traded in exchanges, through brokers, with no need for the buyer and seller to meet and negotiate. An important feature is that a contract need not be settled by actual delivery. It can be matched by an offsetting contract taken by the buyer or seller, and the two can be squared at any point at some gain or loss.

Background :-

India recorded the first trade in futures in 1875 in cotton in the Bombay Cotton Exchange, just 10 years after the first trade was consummated in USA. But India’s agri-futures could not develop much due to a series of suspensions around the Second World War in view of the shortage of essential commodities. This mindset continued post-Independence, and only pepper and turmeric were allowed to trade in 1977. 

How it helps farmers :-

  • Futures markets enable the farmers to deliver the crop at a specified price at some future date. The clearing houses of the commodity exchanges guarantee the performance of these contracts. A farmer, who is uncertain about the prices of his produce, can cover his risk by selling a futures contract sometime before the harvest day.
  • The futures prices are readily available for the farmers as the commodity exchanges disseminate prices on a continuous basis through various channels. If the price available in the futures market is not profitable to the farmer, he can change his cropping plan at the beginning of production itself.
  • The futures market provides perfect collateral for the lenders to advance larger loans on easier terms to the farmers thereby ensuring a minimum-risk business for both the lender and the farmer.
  • Futures market provides a convenient mechanism through which a farmer who wants to speculate on commodity but does not have the storage capacity can increase his speculative ability. He can ‘buy a position’ while the crop is growing by buying a futures contract, and at the time of harvesting, can sell his crop in the cash market simultaneously squaring off his ‘position in the futures market. This way he can gain from any price increase in both the spot as well as the futures market at the time of harvesting.
  • Commodity exchanges assist the producers and consumers in a fair price discovery and enable them to hedge their price risk. The prices disseminate by exchanges are highly reliable and acceptable to both the business community and the farmers as they are discovered by discounting all information available at that point of time.
  • The quality and delivery standards imposed by the exchanges in their products act as benchmarks and increase quality consciousness among farmers.

Conclusion :-

It is thus obvious that a well thought-out strategy to pick the right commodities is a better way to develop agri-futures rather than a frequent stop-go policy. The trust in commodity futures will enhance once more FPOs start trading on agri-futures, and they start gaining directly or indirectly from agri-futures. SEBI can help incentivise the participation of FPOs on the futures trading platform, but the real onus lies with agri-commodity exchanges, and it is here that the progress has been extremely slow.


Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Write a note on important features of David Hume’s theory of justice. 


Introduction :- David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice—stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfil promises.

Public utility is the sole origin of justice. :- In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume’s central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments.

justice depends upon its utility. Change the human situation, produce extreme abundance or poverty, or provide a perfect humanity, or a perfectly evil humanity, and justice becomes useless and its obligation is removed.

Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions.

However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings

Hume constructs his theory in three discernible stages.

  • Hume needs to display the social artificiality of the virtue of justice and the mechanisms through which this artificiality is generally masked.
  • Hume seeks to provide a naturalistic, non political explanation of the patterns of behaviour that are required by the conventions of justice.
  • Hume wants to explain why we call those patterns of behaviour morally virtuous and why we judge them as morally praiseworthy.

Hume indicates that “If we examine the particular laws, by which justice is directed, and property determined; we shall still be presented with the same conclusion: The good of mankind is only the object of all these laws and regulations”

Hume explains his idea that ‘justice is useless in a happy state with a given example. He indicates that “Let us suppose, that nature has bestowed on the human race such profuse abundance of all external conveniences … every individual finds himself fully provided with whatever his most voracious appetites can want, or luxurious imagination wish or desire” Under these conditions, Hume believes that every other social virtue would flourish however ‘virtue of justice’ would never once have been ‘dreamed of’.

Hume notes some differences between artificial virtues such as justice and natural virtues such as benevolence. For Hume, laws are artificial and human invention that’s why justice is artificial not natural virtue. 

A further aspect that Hume deals with while considering justice is the difference between superstition and justice. Hume claims that “the former is frivolous, useless, and burdensome; the latter is absolutely requisite to the well-being of man-kind and existence of society”