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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 August 2017


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 01 August 2017

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1;


Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) Write a note on various important traditions (such as dhrupad)  of Hindustani classical music. (200 Words)

The Hindu


Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It may also be called North Indian classical music or Shāstriya Sangīt. Its origins date from the 12th century CE, when it diverged from Carnatic music, the classical tradition of southern parts of the subcontinent.

Hindustani classical music has strongly influenced Indonesian classical music and Dangdut popular music, especially in instrumentation, melody, harmony, and beat. Its main instruments are tabla, sitar and modern guitars.


  • Indian classical music has seven basic notes with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a 12-note scale.
  • The performance is set to a melodic pattern called a raga characterized in part by specific ascent (aroha) and descent (avaroha) sequences, which may not be identical.
  • Ragas are particular ascending and descending of notes. The ragas must have at least five notes, whereas the Thaats should have seven notes.
  • Ragas may originate from any source, including religious hymns, bhajans, folklore, folk tunes and music from outside the Indian subcontinent.


  • Dhrupad

Dhrupad is the Hindu sacred style of singing, traditionally performed by male singers. It is performed with a tanpura (long-necked lute) and a pakhawaj (barrel-shaped percussion instrument) as instrumental accompaniments. The lyrics, which were in Sanskrit centuries ago, are presently sung in Brajbhasha, a medieval form of Hindi that was spoken in Mathura. The rudra veena, an ancient string instrument, is used in instrumental music in the style of Dhrupad.

Dhrupad music is primarily devotional in theme and content, containing recitals in praise of particular deities. Dhrupad compositions begin with a relatively long and acyclic Alap, where the syllables of the mantra “Om Anant tam Taran Tarini Twam Hari Om Narayan, Anant Hari Om Narayan” is recited. The alap gradually unfolds into a more rhythmic Jod and Jhala sections. This is followed by a rendition of Bandish, with the pakhawaj as an accompaniment. The great Indian musician Tansen sang in the Dhrupad style. A lighter form of Dhrupad, called Dhamar, is sung primarily during the festival of Holi.

Dhrupad was the main form of northern Indian classical music until two centuries ago, but has since then given way to the somewhat less austere khyal, a more free-form style of singing. After losing its main patrons among the royalty in Indian princely states, Dhrupad ran the risk of becoming extinct in the first half of the twentieth century.

Some of the best known vocalists who sing in the Dhrupad style are the members of the Dagar lineage, including the late senior Dagar brothers, Us. Nasir Moinuddin Dagar and Us. Nasir Aminuddin Dagar; the late Junior Dagar brothers, Us. Nasir Zahiruddin and Us. Nasir Faiyazuddin Dagar; Us. Wasifuddin Dagar; Us. Fariduddin Dagar; and Us. Sayeeduddin Dagar

  • Khyal

A form of vocal music, khayal is almost entirely improvised and very emotional in nature. A khyal consists of around 4-8 lines of lyrics set to a tune. The singer then uses these few lines as the basis for improvisation. Though its origins are unknown, it appeared during the fifteenth-century rule of Hussain Shah Sharqi and was popular by the eighteenth-century rule of Mohammed Shah. The best-known composers of the period were Sadarang (a pen name for Niamat Khan), Adarang, Manrang and Nisar Hussain Khan Gwalior.

  • Tarana

Another vocal form, Tarana are songs that are used to convey a mood of elation and are usually performed towards the end of a concert. They consist of a few lines of rhythmic sounds or bols set to a tune. The singer uses these few lines as a basis for very fast improvisation. It can be compared to the Tillana of Carnatic music.

  • Thumri

Thumri is a semi-classical vocal form said to have begun with the court of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, 1847-1856. There are three types of thumri: Punjabi, Lucknavi and poorab ang thumri. The lyrics are typically in a proto-Hindi language called Braj bhasha and are usually romantic.

  • Ghazal

Ghazal was originally a Persian form of poetry. In the Indian sub-continent, Ghazal became the most common form of poetry in the Urdu language and was popularized by classical poets like Mir Taqi Mir, Ghalib, Zauq and Sauda among the North Indian literary elite. Vocal music incorporating this mode of poetry is popular with multiple variations across Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Turkey, India and Pakistan. Ghazal exists in multiple variations, including folk and pop forms but its greatest exponents sing it in a semi-classical style.

The Hindustani classical music has its own legendary history which is part of our cultural heritage.


General Studies – 2


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests  

2) Discuss importance of  India’s engagement with the Philippines to its growing role in Southeast Asia. (200 Words)

The Hindu


India Philippines relationship:

Diplomatic relations between India and the Philippines was established in 1949. A Treaty of Friendship was signed between the Philippines and India on 11 July 1952. The relations between the two countries can be explained under following title.

  • Bilateral trade

India and Philippines signed a Trade Agreement in 1979. Bilateral trade was slow between the two countries till the late nineties and then posted a positive growth after the deepening relations between India and ASEAN in the context of India’s ‘Look East Policy’’.

  • India is part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Negotiations (RCEP) which will also support and contribute to economic integration.

Existing full potential has not been realized and there is need to further facilitate trade between the two countries especially since both economies are growing and are complementary to each other.

  • Tourism

India offers e-Tourist visa to Filipino nationals. However, Indian nationals do need a visa to come to Philippines. The flow of tourism is not much and is hampered by lack of direct flights.

  • Cultural links:

Filipino culture had Indian influences. About 30 percent of the Tagalog language was loanwords from Sanskrit. The use of brass, bronze, copper and tin in Philippine decorative arts and metal works also had Indian origin.

Importance of India Philippines relations:

  1. Look East Policy

India’s ‘Look East policy’ is a priority pillar of its foreign policy and has resulted in intensified relations with countries in the region, both bilaterally and as a regional grouping. Coupled with current developments in the Philippines, the stage appears to set for a dramatic change in bilateral relations, covering the broad canvas of consultations and cooperation on matters related to foreign policy, security, defence, trade, tourism and people-to-people relations, and culture.

  1. Rising Trade:

Number of growth drivers suggests a major and continued fillip in two-way trade and investment. The impact of the India-ASEAN FTA in Goods is already being strongly felt with current two-way trade at $79.4 billion and growing.

  1. Support at global platform

The Philippines supported India’s candidature for the non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council for the term 2011-12 and there is regular consultation between delegations of both countries in the UN and other multilateral fora. Several Foreign Service officers from the Philippines have attended the ASEAN diplomats’ course that is held at the Foreign Service Institute in India.

  1. Geopolitical impacts:

The very specific and geopolitically important location of the Philippines makes it an important player in the Asian region. The vast sea coast and location on main trade route makes this tie up very crucial for India.


The relations between the two countries have been cordial, though the full potential is yet to be realized. It would be fair to say that despite several shared values and commonalities, such as anti-colonialism, South-South cooperation, a strong democratic polity, an independent judiciary and press, and the wide use of the English language, relations between the two countries have been relatively unexplored and reflects a lack of informed knowledge about one another.



Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

3) The 2015 draft DNA Fingerprinting Bill is back in a new version, and includes some important additions and deletions. What are they? What is the need for such a law in the first place, and what are the problems with having one? Examine. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

What is DNA fingerprinting?

DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation. DNA fingerprinting was invented in 1984 by Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys after he realised you could detect variations in human DNA, in the form of these minisatellites.


  • DNA fingerprinting is a technique that simultaneously detects lots of minisatellites in the genome to produce a pattern unique to an individual.
  • DNA analysis is an extremely useful and accurate technology in ascertaining the identity of a person from his/her DNA sample, or establishing biological relationships between individuals.
  • The test isused to determine whether a family relationship exists between two people, to identify organisms causing a disease, and to solve crimes. Only a small sample of cells is needed for DNA fingerprinting.

dna fingerprinting

New draft bill features:

  • The proposed law, which has been in the making since 2003, seeks to establish regulatory institutions and standards for DNA testing, and supervise the activities of all laboratories authorised to carry out such tests.
  • The Bill seeks to set up two new institutions — a DNA Profiling Board and a DNA Data Bank. The Board, with 11 members, is supposed to be the regulatory authority that will grant accreditation to DNA laboratories and lay down guidelines, standards and procedures for their functioning.
  • It will advise central and state governments on all issues relating to DNA laboratories.
  • It will be the authority to make recommendations on ethical and human rights, including privacy, issues related to DNA testing.
  • A national databank of DNA profiles is proposed to be set up, along with regional databanks in every state, or one for two or more states, as required.
  • All regional DNA databanks will be mandated to share their information with the national databank.
  • These are the only places to which DNA samples, picked up from a crime scene, for example, by police, can be referred for analysis. Data from the analyses will need to be shared with the nearest regional DNA databank which will store it and share it with the national databank.
  • The draft has introduced a new provision that explicitly prohibits the collection of any “bodily substance” from an arrested individual (for the purposes of a DNA test) without his/her consent, except if the individual is arrested for certain specific offences.

The difference between previous and this bill:

The previous Bill provided for maintaining a database of people who volunteered to give their DNA profiles, but that has now been deleted.

The new Bill has also removed a provision that allowed DNA profiles in the databank to be used for “creation and maintenance of population statistics databank”.

Need of DNA fingerprint bill:

  1. DNA fingerprinting is latest technology and has huge potential of future uses. Having a legal structure for it is important.
  2. There should be legal regulation over the working of DNA data collecting agencies to avoid any misuse.
  3. There must be the grievance redressal authority in case of data theft by using this technology.
  4. There must be the mandate and security by government about the protection of collection of personal biological data.


  • The issue of whose DNA data can be collected still exists and there is no satisfying answer to it.
  • The situation when to delete the data or to store it is not clear.
  • This draft bill considers DNA fingerprinting technology as a 100% error proof. There are very minor chances of error that may result in wrong decision making in criminal investigation.
  • The efforts must be made on parallel lines to develop efficient human resource in this field.
  • The digital security of collected data is an area of concern.

This draft bill has proposed some innovative concept about this legislation, which under discourse from 2003. The concerns must be addressed to make it a more effective piece of legislation.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

4) Write a note on the progress made in India – Thailand bilateral relations. (200 Words)

The Indian Express


Diplomatic relations between India and Thailand were established in 1947, soon after India gained independence. The past few years since 2001 have witnessed growing warmth, increasing economic and commercial links, exchange of high-level visits on both sides, and the signing of a large number of Agreements leading to a further intensification of relations.

Progress made in relations and it’s Importance:

Both our countries are undergoing comprehensive reforms and are pursuing sustainable and inclusive economic growth for peoples. Based on initiatives such as Make in India and Thailand 4.0, as well as Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) both countries are working in synergy.

Military and security relations are constructive and mutually beneficial, covering the land, sea and air dimensions. Both countries have found a common challenge in the fight against terrorism, narcotics and transnational organised crime. As an emerging power, India has a valuable role to play, together with other regional powers, in ASEAN and the greater Indo-Pacific.

The ASEAN community of 625 million people is on the rise and is a worthy counterpart for the Indian market of 1.3 billion people. Thailand is working hard with India to link these two markets through India’s Northeastern region and Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar.

India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand along the Andaman Sea.

The shared link of Buddhism is reflected in regular pilgrimages to places of Buddhist interest in India by a large number of Thai people. Hindu elements can be found among those reflected in Thai architecture, arts, sculpture, dance, drama and literature. The Thai language incorporates Pali and Sanskrit influences.

The last few years have seen a rapid growth in bilateral trade, which crossed US$ 9 billion mark in year 2012-13. The Framework Agreement on India-Thailand FTA was signed in Bangkok in October 2003 and the second protocol to amend it was signed during the visit of Thai PM to New Delhi.

A MoU on Cooperation in the field of Education was signed in 2005. During 2014-15 Government of India offered 130 scholarships to Thai students under its ITEC and ICCR sponsored schemes. A large number of Thai students are also studying on self-financing basis. Ministry of Human Resource Development provides for secondment of 8 professors every semester for the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok.

It is estimated that there are around 250,000 people of Indian origin in Thailand. People to people contacts are great, with 1.2 million Indians visiting Thailand every year. Many of them have lived here for several generations over the past century. Majority of them hold Thai nationality. The Indian community mainly comprises Sikhs, Punjabis, Gorakhpuris, Tamils and Sindhis.

New Delhi is seeking closer ties with Southeast Asian nations and Thailand’s central position makes it a strategically important partner.



Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. 

5) China’s recent heavy-handed economic sanctioning of South Korea, in response to that country’s decision to deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) anti-missile system, was just the latest example of the Chinese authorities’ use of trade as a political weapon. Critically comment.  (200 Words)



China’s government has always encouraged and then exploited states’ economic reliance on it to compel their support for its foreign-policy objectives. Its economic punishments range from restricting imports or informally boycotting goods to halting strategic exports (such as rare earth minerals) and encouraging domestic protests against specific foreign businesses, suspending tourist travel and blocking fishing access.

China’s recent heavy-handed economic sanctioning of South Korea, in response to that country’s decision to deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) anti-missile system, was just the latest example of the Chinese authorities’ use of trade as a political weapon.

Some of the past examples are –

China’s trade reprisals against Norway-

After the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, Norwegian salmon exports to China collapsed.

Japan –

In 2010, China exploited its monopoly on the global production of vital rare-earth minerals to inflict commercial pain on Japan and the West through an unannounced export embargo. In 2012, after China’s sovereignty dispute with Japan over the Senkaku Islands (which the Japanese first controlled in 1895) flared anew, China once again used trade as a strategic weapon, costing Japan billions of dollars.

Mongolia –

Mongolia became a classic case of such geo-economic coercion, after it hosted the Dalai Lama last November. With China accounting for 90% of Mongolian exports, the Chinese imposed punitive fees on its exports.

South Korea –

In 2000, when South Korea increased tariffs on garlic to protect its farmers from a flood of imports, China responded by banning imports of South Korean cellphones and polyethylene. 

India –

China will not use the trade weapon when it has more to lose, as illustrated by the current Sino-Indian troop stand-off at the border. Chinese leaders value the lopsided trade relationship with India—exports are more than five times higher than imports. So, instead of halting border trade, which could invite Indian economic reprisals, China has cut off Indian pilgrims’ historical access to sacred sites in Tibet.

Way forward –

China is turning into a trade tyrant that does not respect international rules. Its violations include maintaining non-tariff barriers to keep out foreign competition; subsidizing exports; tilting the domestic market in favour of Chinese companies; and underwriting acquisitions of foreign firms to bring home their technologies.

China’s weaponization of trade has gone unchallenged so far. Only a concerted international strategy, with a revived TPP which includes India, South Korea stands a chance of compelling China’s leaders to abide by the rules.



Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

6) Critically comment on the provisions and utility of the Whistle Blowers Protection (WBP) Act, 2014. (200 Words)

The Hindu

Introduction –

A whistleblower is anyone who has and reports insider knowledge of illegal activities occurring in an organization. 
In India, in 2011, Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011 was enacted to provide safeguards against victimization of the person who makes the complaint, i.e. Whistle Blower.

Provisions of the act:

1) The Bill seeks to protect whistleblowers.
2) Whistleblower can be a public servant or any other person including an NGO and may make such a disclosure to the competent authority, Vigilance Commission.
3) The Vigilance Commission (VC) shall not disclose the identity of the complainant except to the head of the department if he deems it necessary. 
4) The Bill penalizes any person who has disclosed the identity of the complainant.
5) The Bill prescribes penalties for knowingly making false complaints.

The utility of the bill –

  1. To establish an institutionalized mechanism for registering misconduct by public officials. 
    2. This will help in reducing corruption without victimization of the complainant. 
    3. It ensures a system of checks and balances both from inside and outside of institutions.
    4. It safeguards institutions even while encouraging whistleblowing by penalising false complaints.

Loopholes –

  1. No penal provisions for govt officials who threaten or victimise the complainants.
    2. State govt officials are not covered under the whistleblower protection act 2014.
    3. corporate fraudulents or corruption cases are not covered under this act even after the cases like “Vyapam” and “Satyam”.
    4. Cases of leaked identity of whistle blowers and their victimization have occurred in the past and shows the loopholes or improper execution of the provisions. Eg. S.P. Mahantesh of Karnataka was whistle blower in the case of controversial land allotment by societies and killed due to the leakage of identity.
    5. issues of national importance like defence, security are exempted under this act, which considerably protects corruption in one of the major sector of country.
    6. There was attempt to dilute the Act by introducing The Whistleblowers Protection(Amendment) Bill, 2015.
    -10 areas were exempted, such as Cabinet meeting, Intellectual Property, economic interest, National Interest, etc.
    -Individual, according to new Bill, can’t expose any irregularities exempted under OSA-1923 which was then allowed under the Act.

Conclusion –

We need to have a strong whistleblower Act on the footsteps of South Africa, which can help in ensuring transparency and openness in Indian institutions. Further, Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 and the Whistleblowers Protection Act, 2011 could be harmonized so as to bring about a smooth flow in to the protection of people.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

7) Discuss the applications and potential of big data in medicine. (200 Words)


Introduction –

Extremely large data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.

Big data analytics has helped healthcare to improve by providing personalized medicine and prescriptive analytics, clinical risk intervention and predictive analytics, waste and care variability reduction, automated external and internal reporting of patient data, standardized medical terms and patient registries.

Applications and potential –

  1. Patient care –
  • Changing the records of patients from physical form to digital form using big data.
  • Providing personalized medicine and prescriptive analytics.
  • Automated external and internal reporting of patient data.
  • Precision Medicine: This is the practice of tailoring individual drugs or treatments to meet the requirements of the individual user. For example, based on the information from tumours, (DNA, responding molecules, etc.) various cancers that have different gene mutations or etiologies are treated differently.


  1. Disease trends and prognosis –
  • machines have proven themselves better than humans in the ability to read scans and evaluate skin lesions. Big data will provide valuable analysis of disease trends and prognosis in individual cases.
  • Ascertaining side effects of approved drugs, deaths from whose side effects don’t show up in testing : instances like where thousands died from heart attacks associated with the painkiller Vioxx before it was taken off the market, can be avoided.


  1. Research and development –
  • new inventions and experiments saved in a repository can help the other scientists and researchers to save time by picking their research from it.
  • To increase the scale and capacity of clinical trials to evaluate drugs. Clinical trials are very expensive and are usually limited to sample sizes and short term durations.
  • Data banks such as Cancer Genome Atlas can pick up on this drawback of clinical trials.

Way forward

Physicians aren’t likely to be replaced by algorithms any time soon, but their skill sets might have to change. Doctors have to think less statistically and more scientifically. Medicine has big scope for better patient care and research using big data.



Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

8) How does floods and other natural disasters impact India’s GDP? Examine. (200 Words)


Introduction :-

India was among the top three most disaster-hit countries in 2015, with whopping economic damages worth $3.30 billion, a new analysis released by the UN office for disaster risk reduction (UNISDR) revealed. From Assam in the north-east to Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, floods are taking a heavy toll on lives and property this year.  Along with flood cyclones, landslides, drought has been main reasons for loss of India’s GDP.

Economic and financial impacts of disasters :-

diasaster losses

  • Macroeconomic impacts Depending on the scale and type of disaster, the macroeconomic implications of natural disasters can be far-reaching and of long duration, not only due to the destruction of countries’ production capacity, but also due to the destabilisation of public finance and the deterioration of their trade position.
  • Impact on the poor:- The effects of natural disasters are particularly adverse for the poor. The majority of the poor cannot afford to live in locations with lower risk of disaster. Typically, they live in houses that are ill-protected against destruction by earthquakes or wind storms, or they live in lowlands that are the first to be covered by floods or else they farm on dry lands without sufficient water storage and irrigation to sustain periods of drought. Women and children are often hit the hardest, bearing the brunt of economic, food secur ity and nutrition impacts. Poverty bears important consideration on GDP. Disasters make the problem of poverty even worst.
  • Environmental degradation increases natural hazard risk :- History provides many examples which show that there is a close positive link between the state of degradation of natural resources and the risk from natural hazards. Which further adds to countries economic expenditure.
  • Long-term implications The implications of natural disasters can be long lasting. People who lose their houses, personal effects and livelihood are bound to change their patterns of behaviour, communication and income earning, all of which takes years of adaptation. Investments in rehabilitation and reconstruction are made at the cost of abandoning or postponing previous plans for investment in productive or social capital and thus result in a slowdown of economic growth.

Though there is a declining trend of disaster related loss on GDP should not make us complacent. A 2015 World Resources Institute study had shown that expanding cities and worsening climate challenges can significantly increase flood-related risks in India. 



Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life 

9) A recent research has offered a combination of two dominant methods — stratospheric sulphate aerosol increase and cirrus cloud thinning — to reduce global warming and precipitation rates to pre-industrial levels. Write a note on these geoengineering technologies. (200 Words)

The Hindu


Introduction :-

Stratospheric sulphate aerosol

cool tech

The ability of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to create a global dimming effect has made them a possible candidate for use in solar radiation management climate engineering projects to limit the effect and impact of climate change due to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Delivery of precursor sulfide gases such as sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) by artillery, aircraft and balloons has been proposed. It presently appears that this proposed method could counter most climatic changes, take effect rapidly, have very low direct implementation costs, and be reversible in its direct climatic effects.

One study calculated the impact of injecting sulfate particles, or aerosols, every one to four years into the stratosphere in amounts equal to those lofted by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, but did not address the many technical and political challenges involved in potential solar radiation management efforts. If found to be economically, environmentally and technologically viable, such injections could provide a “grace period” of up to 20 years before major cutbacks in greenhouse gas emissions would be required, the study concludes.

It has been suggested that the direct delivery of precursors could be achieved using sulfide gases such as dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbonyl sulfide, or hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These compounds would be delivered using artillery, aircraft (such as the high-flying F-15C) or balloons, and result in the formation of compounds with the sulfate anionSO42−.

According to estimates, “one kilogram of well placed sulfur in the stratosphere would roughly offset the warming effect of several hundred thousand kilograms of carbon dioxide.


Cirrus cloud thinning :-

seeded cirrus cloud

Cirrus cloud thinning is a proposed form of climate engineering. Cirrus clouds are high cold ice that, like other clouds, both reflect sunlight and absorb warming infrared radiation. However, they differ from other types of clouds in that, on average, infrared absorption outweighs sunlight reflection, resulting in a net warming effect on the climate. Therefore, thinning or removing these clouds would reduce their heat trapping capacity, resulting in a cooling effect on Earth’s climate. This could be a potential tool to reduce anthropogenic global warming. Cirrus cloud thinning is an alternative category of climate engineering, in addition to solar radiation management and greenhouse gas removal.

Basic principles :-

Typical cirrus clouds may be susceptible to modification to reduce their lifetime and optical thickness, and hence their net positive radiative forcing (in contrast to the typical low, warm liquid clouds). Material to seed such modification could be delivered via drones or by aircraft. Scientists believe that cirrus clouds in the high latitude upper troposphere are formed by homogeneous freezing, resulting in large numbers of small ice crystals. If effective ice nuclei were introduced into this environment, the cirrus may instead form by heterogeneous freezing. If the concentration of ice nuclei is seeded such that the resulting cloud particle density is less than that for the natural case, the cloud particles should grow larger due to less water vapor competition and attain higher settling velocities. By seeding with aerosols, ice crystals could grow rapidly and deplete water vapor, suppress nucleation and any growth of ice crystals by homogeneous nucleation. The net effect would be a reduced optical thickness and a reduced cloud lifetime, allowing more infrared radiation to be emitted at the top of the atmosphere, as the ice particles sediment out. Less upper tropospheric water vapor and infrared radiation in the atmosphere would consequently cool the climate.

Bismuth tri-iodide (BiI3) has been proposed as the seeding material, as it is effective as ice nuclei for temperatures colder than -10 °C, non-toxic and relatively inexpensive compared to e.g. silver iodide. The seeding aerosols would need to be added regularly, as it would sediment out along with the large ice crystals.


General Studies – 4



Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function


10) Often you see in the news of powerful politicians either publicly insulting bureaucrats or even physically abusing government employees. In your opinion, what attitudinal change in required to completely stop such incidents?  (150 Words)


Introduction :- The incidences of politicians insulting bureaucrats like P Chidambaram insulted an IAS officer for not speaking good English language, controversy over PM Narendra Modi visit to Dantewada district collector who wore goggles etc. shows the increasing attitudinal clashes between politicians and bureaucrats.

These incidences happen due to the wrong attitude of both towards each other which is a result of mutual power tussle, egoist, defensive and blaming inclinations of both in many cases.

According to M. Weber, the imperative of politicians is the struggle for power, whereas bureaucrats tend to be obedient and disciplined; politicians – act in the public domain, and bureaucrats function in institutions; the working tool of politicians is their voice, whereas public servants tend to rely on the written word; politician above all things is an actor who passionately advocates for his cause, while an administrator concentrates on solving technical problems; finally, the career of a politician is uncertain, temporary and flexible, whereas bureaucrats often enjoy stability. But this attitudes of politicians and bureaucrats are not suitable and beneficial in todays scenario. Traditional attitudes must be changed.

Politicians and bureaucrats are two sides of same coins. Both need to show mutual cooperation, synergy and understanding in order to achieve the goal of public welfare and national progress.  Cooperation is the need rather than coercion, respect is the way rather than suspect and accountability towards each other is the key rather than irresponsibility, untrustworthiness.