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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1;


Topic: Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

1) What is digital industrialization? Is India ready for it? Examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu


The fourth Industrial Revolution embraces new technologies that are fusing physical, digital and biological worlds, impacting all disciplines, economies and industries. Digital industrialization includes use of digital technologies along with physical infrastructure.

Benefits of Digital Industrialization:

  • A significant economic resource: emergence of new factors of production, capital and labour in the form of Artificial Intelligence, as claimed by Accenture.
  • Worldwide reach: any organization will be able to function anywhere, without inhibitions. Example: Uber-global transport, Monsanto- agriculture
  • Targeted service delivery, efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Business processing cost will go down.
  • Better utilisation of data, data analytics. 
  • Predictability of market.

As data is the new oil, multilateral organizations like RCEP, ASEAN in the name of promotion of e-commerce are restricting the policy making on digitalization. In this regard, denying access of free flow of data intelligence to other countries through agreements between multilateral organizations will help in ensuring the efficiency of a firm which is induced by digital intelligence. A firm’s efficiency depends on the factors of production and in the coming future digital intelligence is going to be most important economic resource in the production.

Data Centre has become an important asset and use of artificial intelligence to deal with big data to provide meaningful information will drive the digital industry to depend on giant players like Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Baidu, Uber etc. Along with this there are challenges of privacy, cyber-attack, etc.

India’s readiness can be seen through following aspects:

  • Emergence of many startups in domains like Robotics, manufacturing, computing aided by government policies of StartUp India, Make in India.
  • Multidisciplinary research and increase in automation though at nascent stages helps in accepting digital industrialization for growth.
  • Digital infrastructure creation – BharatNet, StartUp Hubs, Increased Mobile connections, availability of smart computers and Supercomputers like PARAM etc
  • Increased collaboration and network governance – govt MoUs with foreign academia, industries for R&D, joint development initiatives in both digitalization and industrialization.
  • Growing human resources especially with skills in digital arena and increased ICT applications from all areas like food industry, space applications, electronics, communications sets.

India’s challenges –

  • In the backdrop of countries asserting for liberalizing e-commerce in WTO, India may get hurt by predatory business of global giants like Amazon, Microsoft, etc.
  • Without robust cyber security, Indian data is susceptible to attack e.g. SBI Bank accounts details compromised, Union Bank of India recently fell prey to hacking.
  • Repercussion on Employment generation.

Conclusion –

Although India is maneuvering towards extensive use of Digitization but time is not ripe until – robust digital infrastructure, sound digital literacy and effective services are well penetrated and comprehensive cyber security strategy and policy are devised.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2) Has anything changed for the better after the enactment of the Protection Of Children from Sexual Offences (POSCO) Act in 2012? Critically discuss. (200 Words)

The Indian Express


The enactment of the Protection Of Children from Sexual Offences (POSCO) Act in 2012 has brought following changes in the criminal courts for sexual offences related to minors:

Changes for better –

  1. Judicial changes:
  • Increased Sensitivity in courts : Explicit emphasis on avoiding re-victimisation of child at the hands of the judicial system. Conduct of the trial in-camera and without revealing the identity of the child.
  • Child is not forced to undergo medical examination : This happens only with guardians consent. If such consent is not granted, oral evidence is satisfactory.
  • Child’s statement can be recorded at residential place : Now their is no need to come to police station for this. It’s preferably done by a female police office.
  • Frequent breaks for the child is provided during trials.
  • The media has been barred from disclosing the identity of the child without the permission of the special court.
  1. Societal changes: Social stigma lessened. This is conspicuous with rise in cases which reported last year-
  2. Attitudinal Changes in Law enforcement agencies: e.g. Recently Delhi police has organised awareness programme to sensitize children, teachers and family about POCSO Act.
  3. Deterrence to perpetrator: More than 90% abusers are known to victim(NCRB). With frequent reporting, it is creating deterrence for them.

But problems still persist:

  1. For offences under this act the burden of proof is shifted on the accused. However in reality the prosecution is still asked to prove the case “beyond reasonable doubt”.
  2. When only oral evidence is given, it has been found that comparatively less importance is given to the uncorroborated oral evidence in cases where the consent for medical examination is withheld.
  3. The system is still not pro-active: Currently there are three major functionaries — the prosecution and defence and the judicial magistrate acting like an impartial referee. However, in cases involving minors, judges may need to be slightly pro-active, as even the SC has criticised the passive role played by lower court judges.
  4. The judicial system is still lengthy and not cost-effective.

Conclusion –

The Justice Malimath Committee in its report suggested that some beneficial features of the inquisitorial system should be incorporated in criminal courts. In an inquisitorial system, judicial magistrates investigate criminal offences and search for the truth. This is used internationally in countries like China, Russia, Japan and Scotland. In a sensitive trial like these there is merit in introducing this form of system to protect the child and have impartial verdicts.


Topic:  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

3) Critically evaluate the working of crop insurance schemes. (200 Words)

Down to Earth


Agriculture in India is highly susceptible to risks like droughts and floods. It is necessary to protect the farmers from natural calamities and ensure their credit eligibility for the next season. For this purpose, the Government of India introduced many agricultural schemes throughout the country. Brief information about such schemes:-

  • The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana(Prime Minister’s Crop Insurance Scheme) was launched by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on 18 February 2016. It envisages a uniform premium of only 2 per cent to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5 per cent for Rabi crops. The premium for annual commercial and horticultural crops will be 5 per cent.
  • Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme(CCIS)

The Comprehensive Insurance Scheme (CIS) covered 15 states and 2 union territories. Participation in the scheme was voluntary. Around 5 million farmers and between 8-9 million hectares were annually covered by this scheme. If the actual yield in any area covered by the scheme fell short of the guaranteed yield, the farmers were entitled to an indemnity on compensation to the extent of the shortfall in yield.

  • Experimental Crop Insurance

An experimental crop insurance scheme was introduced in 1997-98, covering non-loanee small and marginal farmers growing specified crops in selected districts. The premium was subsidized. The Government discontinued the scheme during 1997-98 itself.

·        Farm Income Insurance Scheme

The Central Government formulated the Farm Income Insurance Scheme (FIIS) during 2003-04. The two critical components of a farmer’s income are yield and price. FIIS targeted these two components through a single insurance policy so that the insured farmer could get a guaranteed income.

·        National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS)

The Government of India experimented with a comprehensive crop insurance scheme which failed. The Government then introduced in 1999-2000, a new scheme titled “National Agricultural Insurance Scheme” (NAIS) or “Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana” (RKBY). NAIS envisages coverage of all food crops (cereals and pulses), oilseeds, horticultural and commercial crops. It covers all farmers, both loanees and non-loanees, under the scheme.

Evaluation of working:-

  • Delayed payments:-

At the state level caused obstruction in providing financial aid to farmers. Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers’ Welfare (DAC&FW) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare released funds, but the delay took place at the state government level, it stated.

  • Protocol not followed :-

In many cases it is observed that the Agricultural Insurance Company of India Limited (AIC), the government-owned implementing agency for the schemes, failed to exercise due diligence in verification of claims by private insurance companies before releasing funds to them.

  • Missing records, irregularities and malpractices in accounts:-

Whether the money reached the beneficiaries cannot be ensured as the database of beneficiaries was not maintained.

  • Small farmers not covered:-

Small and marginal farmers constitute 85 per cent (12 crores) of the total farmers (14 crores) in the country. Yet, their share in the coverage did not exceed 13.32 per cent under the NAIS scheme.

  • Lack of awareness:-

It can be observed that there are lack of efforts on the part of governments to inform farmers about the insurance schemes as well as the benefits that will accrue to them. A recent report by CAG surveyed 5,993 farmers across the country. Of them, only 37 per cent were aware of crop insurance schemes and knew about the premium rates, risks covered, claims against losses suffered, etc.

Way forward:-

Addressing the issues is vital owing to the distress faced in agricultural sector. Social audits, digital transfer of money, cross checks by various authorities, integration and consolidations of schemes, spreading awareness to maximum number of people is required.


Topic:  Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

4) Discuss the significance and salient features of the Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill 2017. (200 Words)

The Indian Express


Background & Existing condition:

With increasing demand for water, inter-state river water disputes are on the rise but the present Inter State River Water Dispute Act, 1956 that provides the legal framework to address such disputes is seen to have many drawbacks. Under the present Act, a separate Tribunal has to be established for each dispute.

At present, there are eight inter-state water dispute tribunals. The list is:

  1. Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal
  2. Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal –I
  3. Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal
  4. Ravi & Beas Water Tribunal
  5. Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal
  6. Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal –II
  7. Vansadhara Water Disputes Tribunal
  8. Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal

Currently there is no time limit for adjudication or publication of reports and no upper age limit for the chairman or the members.

The Inter-State river water disputes are governed by the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956. If a State Government makes a request regarding any water dispute and the Central Government is of opinion that the water dispute cannot be settled by negotiations, then a Water   Disputes Tribunal is constituted for the adjudication of the water dispute.

This act was further amended in 2002 to include the major recommendations of ‘The Sarkaria Commission’. The amendments mandated a one year time frame to setup the water disputes tribunal and also a 3 year time frame to give a decision.

Features of the bill:

  • Disputes Resolution Committee: Under the Act, when a complaint is received from a state government regarding a water dispute, the central government may ask the affected states to undertake negotiations to settle the dispute.
  • The Bill replaces this provision and requires the central government to set up a Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC), for resolving any inter-state water dispute amicably. The DRC will get a period of one year, extendable by six months, to submit its report to the central government.
  • Members of DRC: Members of the DRC will be from relevant fields, as deemed fit by the central government.
  • Tribunal: The Bill proposes to set up an Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal, for adjudication of water disputes, if a dispute is not resolved through the DRC.  This tribunal can have multiple benches.
  • All existing tribunals will be dissolved and the water disputes pending adjudication before such existing tribunals will be transferred to this newly formed tribunal.
  • Composition of the Tribunal: The tribunal shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, and not more than six nominated members (judges of the Supreme Court or of a High Court), nominated by the Chief Justice of India. 
  • Under the Act, any water disputes tribunal has to give its decision on a dispute within a period of three years. This period is extendable by a maximum of two years.
  • Under the Act, if the matter is again referred to the tribunal by a state for further consideration, the tribunal has to submit its report to the central government within a period of one year.
  • Under the Act, if the matter is again referred to the tribunal by a state for further consideration, the tribunal has to submit its report to the central government within a period of one year.
  • Under the Act, the decision of the tribunal must be published by the central government in the official gazette.
  • Under the Act, the central government maintains a data bank and information system at the national level for each river basin.
  • The Bill gives the central government powers to make rules in which water will be distributed during stress situations arising from shortage in the availability of water.

The bill is a step towards the cooperative federalism and will promote a prompt decision making in case of the various interstate water disputes. The solutions on water disputes will help in the socio economic development of stakeholder states. The implementation of the proposed steps in the bill in its true spirit will develop an integrated regime of river water utilisation.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

5) It is said that the government must urgently frame a national policy for influenza immunisation. Examine why. (200 Words)

The Hindu


The large-scale outbreak of infectious diseases can threaten the economic and regional stability of a country. In the recent past, HIV, H1N1 influenza (swine flu), H5N1 influenza (bird flu), SARS and Ebola epidemics and pandemics have affected people and economies of different areas. Swine flu has seen a worrisome spread in India recently. The occurrence of flue epidemics and its serious implications in urban areas need a better policy level solution that should focus on prevention, control, mitigation and awareness campaigns.

The need of the National policy on Influenza Vaccination:

  • Effectiveness of Vaccination: The most effective method of preventing influenza infection is through vaccination. Safe and effective influenza vaccines are available and have been used worldwide for more than 60 years. Among healthy adults, influenza vaccine provides adequate protection. Among the elderly, the vaccine tends to be less effective in preventing illness.
  • India needs to have a better monitoring and surveillance system for diseases. Better surveillance will also help scientists determine how to respond to this influenza variant.
  • Flu could have serious consequences on the major sectors of the economy, such as tourism, aviation and the informal sector. The government therefore needs to take preventive measures so that potential losses can be avoided.
  • Malnutrition results in weakening of the immune system and lowers disease resistance capacity. All these factors contribute to the challenge of combating flu. There have been instances when co-morbidity has made patients’ immune-compromised and more vulnerable to swine flu, resulting in death.
  • The policy will help to establish data collection and storage regarding occurrence of epidemic and its trend. The data helps in the proper analysis and thus will help to predict the possible occurrence of endemics in any area. With such preparation, the measures can be implemented to intervene at right time.
  • The policy can give the boost to promote research in the field of Flu occurrence and its medication. It will give a boost to indigenous solutions and thus will also support the Indian drug industry rather than foreign drug companies.


In order to improve vaccination rates, there must be a national vaccination policy. While it may not be practical to recommend routine influenza vaccination in the general population of 1.2 billion in India, the vaccinations should be provided especially in high-risk groups such as the elderly, children, medical practitioners and pregnant women. This will require education and improving awareness among antenatal care providers and primary care physicians to encourage vaccination. Since India already manufactures influenza vaccine, there should be more push to administer the vaccine in the high-risk groups. Also, the antigenic drifts of circulating influenza viruses in India combined with the temporal peak in seasonality in various parts of the country demonstrate a need for regional vaccination.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Economics of animal rearing

6) A recent study has found high levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chickens raised for both meat and eggs on farms in Punjab. Why is it alarming? How to address the issue of high use of antibiotics in poultry farms? Discuss. (200 Words)

Down to Earth

Recent incidence:

  • A new study led by researchers from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP), published in Environmental Health Perspectives, finds high levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chickens raised for both meat and eggs on farms in Punjab.
  • Antibiotics are added to animal feeds to treat and prevent infections and to improve growth and production. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease in Human is an issue of major concern. Although misuse of antibiotics in human medicine is the principal cause of the problem, antibiotic-resistant bacteria originating in animals are contributory factors, with some types of resistance in some species of bacteria.
  • Managing the potential impacts of antibiotic use in poultry requires more than a simple estimation of the risks that can be attributed to the use of antibiotics in poultry.


  • Threat of Bio magnification:

The use of anti-biotic and other chemicals leads to the accumulation of chemicals in the animals and the consumption of meat leads to bio magnification in human level as well.

  • Environmental pollution:

The chemical content in poultry body may cause water and soil pollution in case of dead animals and their disposal. This kind of pollution, though minor in content, may cause threat in near future.

  • Development of resistance:

Some bacteria possess the natural genetic capability to survive in the presence of certain antibiotics, and exposure to such antibiotics results in a natural selection favoring those bacteria, which then become predominant. Anti-biotic resistance has given problem to Superbug; this Superbug may cause death in absent of any medicine.

As the population of non-vegetarian population in country is increasing day by day, this issue needs policy level and public discourse.


  • There is need of public awareness about the possible threat of these issues, making it a consumer demand to provide anti biotic free meat by suppliers.
  • There is need of proper regulation by government agencies to curb the use of anti-biotic in poultry industry.
  • Need of efficient infrastructure of laboratories to check and monitor the probable use of anti-biotic in the poultry industry.
  • Promotion of use of organic products in the poultry can solve the issue to certain extent.
  • Raising the birds under clean environments with adequate space to reduce stress and prevent them from being susceptible to infectious pathogens can also act as a part of solution.

The food is primary need of human being and the alteration in the overall food chain is threatening to not just lifestyle but ecology in totality. The awareness and policy measures must be implemented to create the drug free food supply chain.


Topic:  Environmental pollution; Conservation

7) What are the various costs of inaction on climate change? Write a note on BECCS – bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration.(200 Words)

Down to Earth



CO2 emissions are rising, bringing the average global temperature up with them. This will have an impact on the environment, human health, and will have economic costs. Extent of these costs would be multiplied in case of inaction on climate change.

Costs of inaction on climate change-

According to estimate by OECD, the cost of inaction on Climate change-

  • Some regions will be affected more than others, although the severity of these impacts will depend on how much we act now to mitigate the consequences.
  • As the increase in temperature melts polar ice caps, global sea levels will rise. Without adaptation measures, coastal cities will be experiencing major effects by 2070, with USD 35, 000 billion of urban assets in danger, more than 10 times current levels.
  • Temperature changes will also affect precipitation patterns unevenly, causing many dry areas to become drier and wet areas to become wetter.
  • The risk of floods will be much greater in many urban areas. Depending on the climate scenarios, global urban flood damages are projected to amount to USD 0.7 to 1.8 trillion by 2080.
  • At the same time, droughts are expected to increase and the number of people living in severely water-stressed areas will rise, especially in North Africa and the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent and Central Asia.
  • Rising temperatures, rainfall variation and the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events will threaten crop yields.
  • Human lives will also be affected. Premature deaths from exposure to particulates in the air will increase greatly. 

New research published in Earth System Dynamics, conducted by an international team led by US climate scientist James Hansen revealed that economic cost of inaction would be up to US$535 trillion.

Bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration-

  • It involves growing crops which are then burnt in power stations to generate electricity. The carbon dioxide produced is captured from the power station chimneys, compressed, and piped deep down into the Earth’s crust where it will be stored for many thousands of years. This scheme would allow us to both generate electricity and reduce the amount of CO₂ in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Other energy sources are at best carbon-neutral, but BECCS is ‘Carbon-negative’ ie removes more than it emits. Other negative emissions approachesinvolve fertilising the ocean to increase photosynthesis, or direct air capture which sucks CO₂ out of the air and converts it into plastics or other products.
  • The concept of BECCS is drawn from the integration of trees and crops, which extract carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as they grow, the use of this biomass in processing industries or power plants and the application of carbon capture and storagevia CO2 injection into geological formations.
  • In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Reportby the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), BECCS was indicated as a key technology for reaching low carbon dioxide atmospheric concentration targets. The negative emissions that can be produced by BECCS has been estimated by the Royal Society to be equivalent to a 50 to 150 ppm decrease in global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and according to the International Energy Agency, the BLUE map climate change mitigation scenario calls for more than 2 gigatonnes of negative CO2 emissions per year with BECCS in 2050.


By delaying significant carbon emission reductions we risk handing both an impossible financial and technological burden to future generations. Implementing climate change mitigation measures like BECCS will help to avoid such huge costs. Mitigation measures sufficient for reducing 2 degree scenario would only slightly affect future economic growth. However inaction on climate change would have huge economic, social and environmental costs. Thus innovative solutions like BECCS should be implemented to avoid further damage.


Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices

8) The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has recently announced the Draft Food and Standards (Organic Food) Regulations, 2017, aimed at curbing sales of fake organic products. Critically examine how will these regulations affect organic farming in India. (200 Words)

Down to Earth


These recently announced regulations will require that products sold in the domestic market as “organic” be certified by either of the two present certification systems: the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP), initiated by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, or the Participatory Guarantee Scheme (PGS), led by the Ministry of Agriculture. The draft, however, exempts ‘unprocessed’ organic food sold directly by a farmer or a farmer organisation to the end consumer. In other words, this regulation is only applicable to ‘processed’ organic food and branded ‘unprocessed’ organic food sold by a company.

The difference between the two: the NPOP was designed for the export market and involves third-party companies which verify organic status, while in PGS, a group of farmers work together and guarantee that everyone in the group is practising organic farming.

How will these regulations affect organic farming in India?

  • Apparently these regulations could ensure the high quality of organic products to consumers and thereby could give more returns to the producers and farmers.
  • These regulations could also curb and discourage sell of fake and compromised organic products thereby increasing the sale of original organic products of small farmers.
  • These regulations could discourage companies selling compromised organic products and reduce their predatory policies of competition that harms small farmers.

However the closer analysis of the other side shows that it may not curb sales of fake organic products and it might do more harm than good to the organic farming movement in the country.

  • Firstly, both NPOP and PGS are process-based certification systems. They look at the processes and practices of farming and food-processing; testing food for pesticide residues is a limited part of the scheme. NPOP obviously is far more expensive than PGS and therefore, preferred by big farmers, companies and exporters.
  • Under PGS, only the food processed by the PGS group of farmers themselves or their duly authorized federations can be labelled as ‘organic’. The problem is PGS groups are run by small farmers and there are hardly any PGS groups or federations that directly process organic produce. They, therefore, sell their produce to other processors for value addition.
  • Under NPOP, only the produce of a certified NPOP farm can be processed by a certified NPOP processor and sold as ‘organic’. The NPOP processor cannot take fresh produce from a PGS farmer, process it and sell it as ‘organic’.
  • The implication of the draft regulation, therefore, is that it will make it rather difficult for small farmers, who are either PGS certified or non-certified, to sell their produce for value addition.
  • Farmers could be forced to sell fresh produce directly to consumers or get NPOP certification. If a small farmer gets NPOP certification, it makes his/her product more expensive and hence uncompetitive in the market. If he/she sells only fresh produce, his value addition is low.
  • The draft regulations, therefore, could dissuade small farmers from practising organic farming. What it will certainly do is promote companies that do NPOP certification.


Though the objective of FSSAI curbing fake organic products is for the good of the farmer, this could also prove detrimental for the interests of the small farmers. To reduce the menace of fake organic products FSSAI can set standards and use its ‘misbranding’ provision to penalise them. Like it does for every other food product. This would be the right way ahead.


General Studies – 4



Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators

9) According to Swami Vivekananda, what is the goal of ethics? Examine. (150 Words)



Swami Vivekananda thinks that ethics is nothing but a code of conduct that helps a man to be a good citizen of the world.

·        The motto of ethics, according to Swami Vivekananda, is not self, but non-self. A man who wants to behave in accordance with the code of ethics must put himself last, i.e. he must show his attention for the interest of others first.

·        Swamiji says that all codes of ethics are based upon this renunciation; destruction, not construction, of the individual on the material plane. The ethics of Swami Vivekananda leads us to a new concept of holism unlike the traditional concepts. Swami Vivekananda clearly makes distinction between two concepts of moral and immoral.

·        A man who wants to behave in accordance with the code of ethics must put himself last, i.e. he must show his attention for the interest of others first.

·        According to Swami Vivekananda, ―The watchword of all well-being, of all moral good is not I but thou. Two forces have been working side by side in parallel lines. The one says I the other says not I. Throughout creation these two forces are working side by side, where you find the one, you find the other too. The one is selfishness, the other is unselfishness. The one is acquisition, the other is renunciation.

·        To lead ethical life or to be moral acceptance of oneness and the rejection of individuality is must. The background of ethics of Swami Vivekananda is oneness.


All the ethical concepts, except Vivekananda‘s concept, treat human beings as good or bad beings, while Swamiji treats all of them as one. In the context of global upheaval, problems of migrants, turmoil in Middle East, protectionism and self-interest of individual nations, cross border terrorism, and shared responsibility of climate change, Vivekananda’s concept of ethics hold huge relevance. If we show “unselfish” behaviour as taught by him consider all human as our brother and sisters then this world will have better order and structure.