SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 February 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
Veer Savarkar occupies a unique place in the history of Indian freedom struggle. His name evokes controversy. While some consider him as one of the greatest revolutionaries in the Indian freedom struggle, others consider him a communalist and right-wing leader.
Critique of contribution made by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar-
- In Pune, Savarkar founded the “Abhinav Bharat Society”. He was also involved in the Swadeshi movement and later joined Tilak’s Swaraj Party. His instigating patriotic speeches and activities incensed the British Government. As a result the British Government withdrew his B.A. degree.
- In June 1906, Veer Savarkar, left for London to become Barrister. However, once in London, he united and inflamed the Indian students in England against British rule in India. He founded the Free India Society. The Society celebrated important dates on the Indian calendar including festivals, freedom movement landmarks, and was dedicated to furthering discussion about Indian freedom. He believed and advocated the use of arms to free India from the British and created a network of Indians in England, equipped with weapons.
- In 1908, brought out an authentic informative researched work on The Great Indian Revolt, which the British termed as “Sepoy Mutiny” of 1857. The book was called “The Indian War of Independence 1857”. The British government immediately enforced a ban on the publication in both Britain and India. Later, it was published by Madame Bhikaiji Cama in Holland, and was smuggled into India to reach revolutionaries working across the country against British rule.
- When the then British Collector of Nasik, A.M.T. Jackson was shot by a youth, Veer Savarkar finally fell under the net of the British authorities. He was implicated in the murder citing his connections with India House. Savarkar was arrested in London on March 13, 1910 and sent to India.
- In 1920, many prominent freedom fighters including Vithalbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded the release of Savarkar. On May 2, 1921, Savarkar was moved to Ratnagiri jail, and from there to the Yeravada jail. In Ratnagiri jail Savarkar wrote the book ‘Hindutva: who is hindu?’
Savarkar began describing a “Hindu” as a patriotic inhabitant of Bharatavarsha, venturing beyond a religious identity. While emphasising the need for patriotic and social unity of all Hindu communities, he described Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism as one and the same. He outlined his vision of a “Hindu Rashtra” (Hindu Nation) as “Akhand Bharat” (United India), purportedly stretching across the entire Indian subcontinent. He defined Hindus as being neither Aryan nor Dravidian but as “People who live as children of a common motherland, adoring a common holyland.”
- Although staunch anti-British in his early years, he supported British efforts in India seeking military efforts to Hindus during World War 2 and opposed the Quit India Movement.
- Hindu Mahasabha activists protested Gandhi’s initiative to hold talks with Jinnah in 1944, which Savarkar denounced as “appeasement.” He assailed the British proposals for transfer of power, attacking both the Congress and the British for making concessions to Muslim separatists.
- Vinayak Savarkar was a president of Hindu Mahasabha from 1937 to 1943. When congress ministries offered resignation on 22nd oct 1939, Hindu mahaasabha under his leadership cooperated with Muslim league to form government in provinces like Sindh, Bengal and NWFP.
- His strong views on Hindutva though secular in broader outlook, led to rise in radicalism among his followers. This also led to rise in tension between two communities.
Many of Savarkar’s ideas on social and religious reforms, embrace of science, and building a stronger state continue to be relevant for India. His controversial position on Hindutva also continues to inform current political debates. It is time that a wider set of scholars began to engage with Savarkar’s ideas—including controversial ones.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
Aadhaar is a 12 digit unique-identity number issued to all Indian residents based on their biometric and demographic data. The data is collected by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), a statutory authority established on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, under the provisions of the Aadhaar Act 2016.
Aadhaar is the world’s largest biometric ID system, with over 1.123 billion enrolled members as of 28 February 2017. As of this date, over 99% of Indians aged 18 and above had been enrolled in Aadhaar.
Aadhaar is not a proof of citizenship, and does not grant any rights to domicile in India.
About Money bill :
The constitution defines those bills as Money bills under Art 110 which contains provisions related to regulation of taxation, money withdrawal from consolidated fund of India etc. Any bill that contains matter beyond the scope of this provision are treated as an ordinary bill. A money bill enjoys certain privileges during its passage such that the role of Rajyasabha is restricted and it can’t be rejected by The president. The constitution further mentions that the power of certification of a bill as money bill vests with the speaker and its decision is final.
The recent introduction of Aadhar act as money bill contravenes the bare text of constitution as:
- Aadhar is meant to create a database of bio-metric and other details of Indian residents so that it provides a unique identity to its residents. The scheme is to ensure targeted subsidy and other transfers from the government to its residents.
- It doesn’t deal solely with the matter related either to taxation or to money functions. The only provision related with money, contained in the bill is that, the money required to create this database has to come from consolidated fund of India.
- It has got the certification of money bill by the speaker which is the final authority to decide. But if we refer to the bare constitutional text, this bill contains provisions other than matter related with money bill (like collection of private data from residents) hence; it should have been introduced as an ordinary bill.
- Along with contradictory aspect of being money bill or not , it encroaches the right to privacy of an individual ( article 21 ) enshrined in the constitution as Fundamental right . This arbitrariness is against the basic tenets of the constitution.
The introduction of Aadhar as a money bill was to prevent it from the scrutiny of Rajya sabha where the ruling party don’t enjoy majority. Therefore it is a subversion of democratic principles. The bill contains provision which relate to the right to privacy of individuals and it needed to be discussed and debated in both houses of the parliament. The Supreme Court should consider the facts in this particular case and draft clear guidelines related to the speaker’s power Vs. judicial review regarding money bill so as to protect the citizen right and parliamentary democracy.
The Aadhar scheme is indeed a unique initiative to grant all Indians with a unique identity, and that would help provide services in a targetted manner. But, it also needs to pass the test of legality, and must not be accused of esacping the complete scrutiny of the Parliament, just on the basis of it having been passed as a money bill.
Topic: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
WHAT IS A BIT?
A BIT is an agreement between two countries that sets up “rules of the road” for foreign investment in each other’s countries. BITs give investors better access to foreign markets—and on fairer terms.
WHAT WOULD A BIT DO FOR FOREIGN INVESTORS?
When countries enter into a BIT, both countries agree to provide protections for the other country’s foreign investments that they would not otherwise have. A BIT provides major benefits for investors in another country, including national treatment, fair and equitable treatment, protection from expropriation and performance requirements for investments, and access to neutral dispute settlement.
BITs are mostly designed to protect the foreign investors and do not take into account obligations and standards to protect the environment, labor rights, social provisions or natural resources. Moreover, when such clauses are agreed upon the formulation is legally very open-ended and unpredictable.
PROTECTION OF LAW TO TRIBALS –
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP), adopted in 2007, for which India voted, recognizes among other things indigenous peoples’ rights to self-determination, autonomy or self-governance, and their right against forcible displacement and relocation from their lands or territories without free, prior and informed consent.
International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989 which is based on the “respect for the cultures and ways of life of indigenous peoples” and recognises their “right to land and natural resources and to define their own priorities for development.” India is not a party to this, but it is a party to the ILO Convention concerning the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries, 1957 which is outdated and closed for ratification.
In INDIA’S CONTEXT –
Constitution provides autonomy to tribal areas in matters of governance under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules, which is further fortified by the Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh & Ors (1997) judgment where the Supreme Court declared that the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining was null and void under the Fifth Schedule.
The framework for protection of the rights of tribal and indigenous people is further strengthened by the Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006 which protects the individual and community rights of tribal people in forest areas and their right to free and prior informed consent in event of their displacement and resettlement.
BIT or a Bilateral Investment Treaty is indeed one of the avenues through which India has been able to attract significant foreign investment over the years. Apart from the existing domestic laws for investments, BITs contain provision for investment treaty arbitration(ITA) which allows a foreign investor to sue the government on grounds on violation of treaty.
Agreements can include activities like mining, establishment of industries etc. in tribal lands.
But, at the same time, the impact of such treaties on the tribal and indigenous populations needs to be highlighted in a serious way too. Recent report of Xaxa committee says that there are several incidents where the tribal rights are violated and failed to provide protection of any sort to tribal people guaranteed under the 5th & 6th schedule of Constitution and Recognition of Forest Act , 2006.
These agreements protected by BITs can result in displacement and denial of forest rights (livelihood) to tribals in the following ways –
- None of the BITs signed by India contain provision for protection of tribal rights and the latest model BIT too does not have any such provision. This can lead to denial of rights to tribals in the following ways-
- Conditions of “free informed consent” from Gram Sabha for removing and rahabilitating without consulting.
- Mines and Minerals Act, Compensatory Afforestation Fund Actundermines FRA.
- Jharkhand GOV amended Chottanagpur Actto eliminate Gram Sabha Rights and let tribal land taken by private and real-estate players.
- In Maharashtra all forest management done by GOV promoted committeeinstead of GS.
- Freezing of Pattas (land rights)not given timely and rejected by bureaucrats . Eg – Gujarat.
- In case of opposition to investment by tribals, due to the fear of getting sued by investors, government tends to violate laws providing tribal rights(like the Forest Rights Act, 2006, social impact assessment etc) and suppress their agitations to protect investment agreements signed with foreign investors.
WAY FORWARD –
Some investments like those by Vedanta in Odisha and by a UAE Authority in Andhra Pradesh have become controversial recently due to their violation of tribal rights and subsequent arbitration and court judgements. To avoid such consequences, following measures should be considered –
- To avoid ITA cases , GOV should include provisions relating to protection of indigenous people in BIT as done in Canada and NZunder TTP.
- Strengthening of BITs must go hand in hand with Domestic laws like Recognition of Forest Act.
- Giving tribal representationin investment policy making.
- No tribal land should be alienated without the consent of the tribal gram sabha.
- India voted for UNDRIP.Incorporating the scope for renegotiation in new BITs to protect the rights of tribal people and Implementation of the domestic legislation for tribal rights should see a boost.
Government should try to understand what is tribal’s idea of development rather than just imposing the one and should focus on community consultation and true participation in each and every developmental process without jeopardizing their forest rights.
Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.
India and Bangladesh share a common history and heritage and cultural and linguistic ties which create an invisible bond between the two. Today, India and Bangladesh have common concerns for development and lot of other important areas which again help to strengthen ties.
THE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH:
- Economic Development:
- a) Border haats are being opened in Tripura and Meghalaya.b) More than 6B trade has helped both countries.
c) India is investing in Bangladesh so that it can be politically stable and it can bring prosperity in Bangladesh. It will help to get the ties better.
d) Both countries have inked MoU for the development of Sylhet city.
2) Land Boundary Agreement Issue:
The exchange of border enclaves thereby settling the disputes in land boundary agreement gave a great boost to the bilateral relationship between both nations.
- Strategic relationship :
With improved cross-border surveillance, joint military exercise with Bangladesh like Mitra Shakti, availing our roads in Mizoram and Tripura border to Bangladesh army to develop outposts, there is a significant convergence in our relationship with Bangladesh.
- Connectivity :
Provisions for connectivity which includes connecting NE State through Bangladesh to the Mainland, BBIN corridor, BCIM Corridor, Space diplomacy through letting Bangladesh use NAVIC for navigational purposes would go great way in frutifying our bilateral relationships.
[India’s Chicken Neck: India has had their problems to connect to north east and it has a small corridor known as Siliguri corridor or Chicken’s neck. But now, the rail and road connectivities are planned.]
5) Standing against Terrorism: Bangladesh and India have stood with each other against terrorism where Bangladesh raised its voice against Uri and Pathankot attacks.
6) Cultural Development: On 21st Feb, International Mother Language Day, Bengali speakers of both countries got together, which connect people to people.
Launching of Akashvani Maitree channel for Bengali listeners and its website, an initiative which will provide a platform for blending content both from India and Bangladesh and preserving Bengali culture.
However, even though the relations have improved due to increase connectivity, trade & commerce, FOLLOWIG ARE THE OUTSTANDING ISSUES-
1) Migrants from Bangladesh have changed the demography of Assam and West Bengal which is a cause of concern for India. They have also spread to other states like Meghalaya and Tripura which have very small indigenous population.
2) Growing support of China towards Bangladesh through BCIM and $ 48 billion deal increases Chinese influence in subcontinent
3) persecution and killings of Hindus is a bone of contention between both the countries.
4) Water sharing treaties on Ganga and Teesta have not been defined. Key parties include states like Bihar and West Bengal who use the water.
India and Bangladesh must look for the areas of common cooperation always and that can help both the countries to get the economic and social benefits for the people and it will also help the political power to be stable. The political stability of course will help the people so that long terms goal of development can be focused on.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
5) The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given the Indian vaccine regulatory structure the highest possible rating of 4 on a majority of parameters. Explain the ranking system, and what it means to various stakeholders. (200 Words)
For several days last week, a team of experts in multiple disciplines drawn from the WHO’s Geneva headquarters, its India Country Office, and national regulators of the US, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Indonesia, Thailand and Egypt, assessed the National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) of India.
NRAs are defined by the WHO as “national regulatory agencies responsible for ensuring that products released for public distribution (normally pharmaceuticals and biological products, such as vaccines) are evaluated properly and meet international standards of quality and safety”.
In India’s case, the NRA, as defined by the WHO, comprises the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO), which has regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials; the State Drug Regulatory Authorities; the Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI), the country’s national drug safety program; and the Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) structures at the central and state levels.
PARAMETERS OF RANKING :-
# Published set of requirements for licensing
# Surveillance of vaccine field performance
# System of lot release
# Use of laboratory when needed
# Regular inspections for GMP (good manufacturing practices), and
# Evaluation of clinical performance.
The Indian NRA was assessed on nine functions. These were,
# quality of the national regulatory system
# registration and marketing authorisation
# laboratory access and testing
# regulatory inspection
# clinical trial oversight
# NRA lot release
# licensing premises, and
#market surveillance and control.
MEANING TO VARIOUS STAKEHOLDER:-
- TO INDIA:- it means that India has been classified as a stringent regulator of vaccines alongside developed countries such as the US, Japan and EU member states
- TO MANUFACTURING:- It shall give a strong push to Make in India, as the demand of conventional Indian medicines in international markets will increase
- TO PRIVATE SECCTOR:- It may increase international investment in Indian pharma sector, which had decreased after the some Indian medicines lost the WHO pre-qualification test. This will give impetus to R&D in pharma sector.
- TO PHARMA COMPANIES:- India can use this opportunity to popularise and spread its generic medicine market, along with the present exported medicines, to increase its hold over the international pharma business
General Studies – 3
Topic: Agriculture issues
NATURE OF MULTIPLE CRISES FACED BY INDIAN FARMERS:-
- They are mostly caused by the historical evolution of Indian agriculture. The inherent characteristics of Indian agriculture like low level of agricultural holding, large proportion of small and marginal farmers heavily tilt the agriculture in negative side.
- The Indian agriculture is subsistence in nature. Many farmers take the crops only for their own households and not for commercial purposes. This prevents the agriculture from being market oriented.
- The crisis are environmental in nature to a large extent. The scarcity of water, land degradation, shrinking of good quality land are some of these problems.
- The problems have got a political tone to it. The land acquisition and resettlement and rehabilitation act got politicized and hence lost its true significance, potential.
· socio-cultural nature:-In a country like India socio-cultural factors are relevant. Families have to face high expenses mainly related to health care, in particular farmers lack good healthcare services and have to bear huge costs for hospitalization. Other sources of debts include the expenses for children education and the costs for daughter’s marriage. The expenses incurred to host the ceremony and mainly the dowry that they need to pay to the groom’s family.
· Scientific:-The problems of pests, foreign seeds and widicide also shows the dark side of Indian agricultural problems. The problem of GM crops is also important. The GM seeds introduced in India are modified in order to prevent pests’ attacks to the crop. GM seeds have been strongly criticized for being not productive, international reports state the real improvement of production if seeds are correctly used.