SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 February 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
General Studies – 1;
Topic: Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
CLASSICAL LIBERALISM /LIBERAL CAPITALISM –
Liberal capitalism is the economy and market with minimum government intervention. Based on the principle of laissez-faire economic theory, it opens up competition between various market forces domestically and globally, moving the economy towards a real market, rather than a government-decided one.
MODERN ECONOMIC LIBERALISM –
It calls for government regulation to control the excesses of free-market capitalism. Modern liberalism or the “Keynesian school” of economics, named for its main proponent John Maynard Keynes and differing from classical liberalism, developed in the aftermath of the 1930s failure of the free-market system known as the Great Depression.
Neoliberalism, sometimes referred to as the “Chicago school” of economics and named after the University of Chicago, rose to prominence in response to the breakdown of the international money system and the fiscal contradictions viewed as inherent in the welfare system.
This includes extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society. These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980. The implementation of neoliberal policies and the acceptance of neoliberal economic theories in the 1970s are seen by some academics as the root of financialization, with the financial crisis of 2007–08 as one of the ultimate results.
Currently, neoliberalism is most commonly used to refer to market-oriented reform policies such as “eliminating price controls, deregulating capital markets, lowering trade barriers”, and reducing state influence on the economy, through privatization and austerity.
BENEFITS OF NEOLIBERALISM –
In 2016, researchers for the IMF released a paper entitled “Neoliberalism: Oversold?,” which stated:
There is much to cheer in the neoliberal agenda. The expansion of global trade has rescued millions from abject poverty. Foreign direct investment has often been a way to transfer technology and know-how to developing economies. Privatization of state-owned enterprises has in many instances led to more efficient provision of services and lowered the fiscal burden on governments.
CRITICISM OF NEOLIBERALISM –
However,the report was also critical of some neoliberal policies, such as freedom of capital and fiscal consolidation for “increasing inequality, in turn jeopardizing durable expansion.” The report contends the implementation of neoliberal policies by economic and political elites has led to “three disquieting conclusions”:-
- The benefits in terms of increased growth seem fairly difficult to establish when looking at a broad group of countries.
- The costs in terms of increased inequality are prominent. Such costs epitomize the trade-off between the growth and equity effects of some aspects of the neoliberal agenda.
- Increased inequality in turn hurts the level and sustainability of growth. Even if growth is the sole or main purpose of the neoliberal agenda, advocates of that agenda still need to pay attention to the distributional effects.
More Counterpoints to neoliberalism –
- Globalization can subvert nations’ ability forself-determination.
- The replacement of a government-owned monopoly with private companies, each supposedly trying to provide the consumer with better value service than all of its private competitors, removes the efficiency that can be gained from the economy of scale.
- Even if it could be shown that neoliberal capitalism increases productivity, it erodes the conditions in which production occurs long term, i.e., resources/nature, requiring expansion into new areas. It is therefore not sustainable within the world’s limited geographical space.
- Exploitation: promoteexploitation and social injustice.
- Negative economic consequences:-neo-liberal policies produceeconomic inequality.
- Mass incarceration of the poor:- neoliberal policies result in an expanding carceral state and the criminalization ofpoverty.
- Increase in corporate power:-some organizations and economists believe neoliberalism, unlike liberalism, changes economic and government policies to increase the power of corporations, and a shift to benefit the upper classes.
- Anti-democratic:- some scholars contend that neoliberalism undermines the basic elements of democracy.
- There are terrains of struggles for neoliberalism locally and socially. Urban citizens are increasingly deprived of the power to shape the basic conditions of daily life.
- Trade-led, unregulated economic activity and lax state regulation of pollution lead to environmental impacts or degradation.
- Deregulation of the labor market produces flexibilization and casualization of labor, greater informal employment, and a considerable increase in industrial accidents and occupational diseases.
- Mass extinction:- “the era of neoliberalization also happens to be the era of the fastest mass extinction of species in the Earth’s recent history.”
- Instead of citizens, it produces consumers. Instead of communities, it produces shopping malls. The net result is an atomized society of disengaged individuals who feel demoralized and socially powerless. Neoliberalism holds that market forces should organize every facet of society, including economic and social life, and promotes asocial darwinist ethic which elevates self-interest over social needs.
Financialization refers to a “pattern of accumulation in which profit making occurs increasingly through financial channels rather than through trade and commodity production.”
Term is used to describe the development of financial capitalism during the period from 1980 until 2010, in which debt-to-equity ratios increased and financial services accounted for an increasing share of national income relative to other sectors.
Financialization describes an economic process by which exchange is facilitated through the intermediation of financial instruments. Financialization may permit real goods, services, and risks to be readily exchangeable for currency, and thus make it easier for people to rationalize their assets and income flows.
FINANCIAL SPECULATION –
When financial speculation takes over, as it started doing from the 1980s, an entirely different situation comes into being. Today, financial speculation far outstrips global trade. Finance capital tyrannizes not just social capital but even industrial capital. Most of the capital used for such financial speculation does not need to be invested in production or services; it can just be moved around. Most of this capital is not even in the shape of cash, which is cumbersome to move. It is sheer numbers, including digital money, and many types of debt and credit.
DO WE NEED LIBERAL CAPITALISM –
- While the fact that liberal capitalism promotes competition and result in efficiency and cost effective output, cannot be denied , its objective is completely profit oriented which cannot go with the sustainable development goals and other social objectives that aim at reducing poverty.
- It also shares the drawbacks of neoliberalism though in somewhat lower measure.
- In present distorted form ,Neo-liberalism believes that governments should intervene in markets — but only on the side of banks, finance capitalists and lending agencies. Every time financial speculation creates a crisis, governments are expected to tax their citizens and use that money to save banks and financial institutions.
- So, what is needed today is positive intervention by Government for equitable and sustainable economic development and not complete separation of state and market; for example -Requirement of financial regulators such as SEBI in economies to safeguard interests of the common people. ie. control on secondary market and chit fund schemes (artificial demand creation).
- NEED OF STATE REGULATION –
The market needs the state, more than the other way around. The market needs internal regulation, in order to function: the state, in the form of the legal system, ensures contracts are enforced. In the form of the police, it prevents theft and fraud. It establishes uniform systems of weights and measures, and a uniform currency. Without these things there would be no free market, no market forces, and no resulting market society.
- Adopting a system that is flexible to change with the need of the time and enable the government to pitch in whenever necessary will help.
Topic: Urbanization – problems and remedies
“A city is more than a place in space, it is a drama in time.” – Patrick Geddes.
The Economic Survey of 2016-17 lays stress on urbanization stating that it will “decide the trajectory of Indian Development”. The Survey has in this regard suggested the idea of “proprietary cities”.
A proprietary community is a territorial governance structure under a single owner. This structure approximates private property, giving it an advantage over other governance structures. In a proprietary community, there is a single decision-maker with an interest in property values, which are highly correlated with economic development.
The typical example of a proprietary community is a shopping mall. The mall has a single owner who then rents out store space.
A proprietary city would follow the same model as a proprietary community, but on a much larger scale.Proprietary cities give decision-makers a monetary incentive to think long-term.
“A community created and provisioned by a private developer under an arrangement in exchange for some kind of land tax.”
It’s essentially a mega land acquisition justified by the idea that the private developer has an incentive to innovate in infrastructure, services and the regulatory environment to make the place clean, safe, attractive and economically vibrant enough to generate taxable value. No more fragmentation of responsibility across unaccountable and inept public sector agencies; no more election-focused short-termism; no more neglect of the commons within the city.
There are three categories of such arrangements.
- some are being built as joint ventures with the host state. Viz. A public private venture, like King Abdullah Economic City in Saudi Arabia.
- other proprietary cities have contractual arrangements with the host state.
- some host states create a legal framework for the creation of competing proprietary cities. Viz. Honduras has created a legal framework for the creation of proprietary cities with ZEDEs. ZEDEs will be run by a technical secretary appointed by a government established committee.
EXAMPLES IN INDIA –
- Gurgaon, shows both the successes and failures of private development. On the surface, Gurgaon is a gleaming, modern city built nearly overnight on wasteland. Gurgaon was built, however, without benefit of planning and its failures–most notably poor and inefficient provision of water, sewage, and electricity–are a warning. The failures all stem from high transaction costs, Gurgaon’s private developers have not managed to bargain and internalize externalities.
- Jamshedpur, suggests another approach. Jamshedpur is a private township, planned from the beginning by visionary businessman Jamshedji Tata. Jamshedpur has been run by a single, integrated entity for over 100 years and as it is integrated it has internalized externalities. As a result, Jamshedpur, has some of the best urban infrastructure in all of India.
Proprietary cities are those cities which are owned by private individuals and other users have to rent spaces in that city from that owner. The owner has the responsibility of providing basic amenities to the residents of the city like maintenance, sanitation, safety and operation of the city.
Positive role –
- Economic viability:Since the cities are owned and managed by business minded individuals, there are greater chances that economic output of the cities would be increased as most of the decisions taken would serve the economic interests of individuals e.g. development of SEZs and Software Parks
- Better administration and planning :Governance practices like professionalism, meritocracy, , effective monitoring and risk review would become more fine-tuned which would lead to adoption of better governance practices.Better chances that the maintenance and management of the cities would be up-to-date in line with govt.’s vision of Smart Cities.
Planning: Proprietary cities are better planned compared to haphazardly grown cities in India, thereby ensuring better planning and provision of services and welfare schemes for all residents. For example, traffic congestion and pollution can be reduced by adjacently constructing residential and office buildings. Such an urbanization can be more sustainable.
More efficiency , accountability and less fragmentation as compared to public sector agencies.
Less election and vote bank focused promises for development but only development for development’s sake.
- Modern technologies:There are higher chances that the cities would incorporate modern technologies in their infrastructural framework e.g. employment of Big Data services and realization of Digital India
- Attracting FDI:Such cities would’ve better chances of attracting FDIs and domestic investments as the economic output would take precedence over other issue.Countering trade deficits by promoting manufacturing in line with Make in India.
Negative aspects –
- Promote crony capitalism:Extreme commercialization of cities might develop politico-businessmen nexus that would severely violate principles of DPSP.
- Ignorance of Social parameters:Social parameters like unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy and women empowerment might be totally ignored in the race to maximize economic profits.
- Environmental exploitation:Overuse of natural resources and Environmental issues like air, water and soil pollution would witness flagrant violations as economic growth would take precedence.
- Commercialization of public services:Education would become highly commercialized which will harm creative and out of the box thinking in children. Similarly, commercialization of health sector might promote exploitative practices.
- Inequitable growth:Due to predominance of economic interests, inequitable growth may take place which would be a gross violation of DPSP principles
- Hegemony of few corporate houses
- Minimization of participatory governance and lack of democratic decision making.
Proprietary cities are likely to continue to compete with traditional city governments. The success of proprietary cities will depend on the degree of institutional autonomy they obtain from host countries. While doing this, it should be ensured that our democratic and constitutional ideals are not forgotten in our bid to maximize economic viability. Equitable and sustainable growth is in the greater interest of all the citizens and the country as a whole. Hence , Proper mechanisms and laws need to be in place to regulate them.
General Studies – 2
Topic:Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.
3) Neither sanctions nor warnings issued by other powers have had any impact on North Korea’s bellicose behaviour which again recently launched a medium-range ballistic missile. In your opinion, how should the US, the UN and other powers respond and restrain North Korea? Critically comment. (200 Words)
Despite sanctions and warnings from the UN and other nations, North Korea has continued to engage in creation of nuclear weapons. Constant provocations by North Korea towards other nations especially the US by conducting nuclear tests has made dealing with it all the more difficult.
1)Possible measures taken by UN, US and other nations –Diplomatic engagement– open channels for North Korea to engage in diplomatic discussions, provide it’s leader a platform resolving it’s internal problems. China’s leverage over Pyongyang can be used here; resumption of ‘six-party talks’.
2) Nuclear deals– present lucrative nuclear deals to encourage export of nuclear resources owing to it’s plentiful uranium and plutonium reserves. Mandate disclosure of all nuclear facilities.
3)Efforts that should be taken by the UN:
The UNSC has adopted 21 resolutions concerning North Korea out of which 15 resolutions have been adopted in relation to the North Korean missile and nuclear program. Still it needs to take further steps –
- Parallel Negotiations:Parallel negotiations is probably the best approach that UN can consider in its attempt to denuclearize North Korea.
• Prevention in further sanctions: UN should stop frequent sanctions as it further isolates N. Korea which could be reason for these launches.
• The UN should try to aware North Korea of its humanitarian needs towards its citizens.It should help N.Korea to enhance its economy and maximize its trade to gain its trust.
UNDP specialized package for North Korea- Creation of a customized developmental plan by UN for North Korea to address it’s problems of food security, poverty, economic problems etc.
4) Counter-effect of sanctions needs to be taken into account; maybe the endless sanctions and isolation faced by North Korea is one of the reasons for such repeated provocation.
5) Trade agreements- incentivise trade agreements with neighboring countries to reduce it’s negative balance of trade, opening up it’s economy, increased people-to-people contacts, cultural contacts ,etc.
- Understanding apprehensions of North Korea- The joint military exercises of U.S. and South Korea called ‘key resolve’ , deployment of nuclear capable bombers in the drills by U.S. These apprehensions should be utilized as leverage for the negotiations by creating right atmosphere.
Cons of such measures –
- There is a high possibility of rejection of such measures by North Korea owing to it’s political and socioeconomic conditions.
2) Non-disclosure of nuclear facilities is a possibility that can prove dangerous for other nations engaging with it.
The criticality and sensitivity of the issue stems from the involvement of nuclear weapons. War thus remains out of question. When punishment fails to yield the desired results, it is only soft powered measures that can be used to tackle North Korea.
General Studies – 3
Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
“An interceptor missile is a surface to air missile designed to counter an incoming ballistic missile. The incoming missile gets destroyed before it is able to hit its target.”
The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect from ballistic missile attacks.
India’s indigenous BMD programme encompasses a double-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles – Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude [exo-atmospheric] interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile for interception at lower altitudes[endo-atmospheric].
Recently, the successful test launch of an interceptor missile by India has been in the news. The significance of the test can be highlighted through the following points:
- It confirmed the establishment of a two-layered ballistic missile defence system for India.
2. The test further enhanced the credibility of the current regime of deterrence against its neighbours like Pakistan and China.
3. It opens up the way for testing of more advanced missile technologies, with India already being a member of MTCR.
- It provides a significant boost to self reliance & the indigenous technology system of India and it has following features –
- It has state of art technology consisting of high accuracy Inertial Navigation System (INS) & supported by a Redundant Micro Navigation System.
•Since PAD is capable of destroying the target at high altitude, there is little risk of collateral damage through debris fall.
• Prithvi Interceptor missile code named PDV is expected to replace the existing PAD in the PAD/AAD Combination.It will also have IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) seeker for its kill vehicle as well. So, it would be better than PAD.
The successful test of interceptor missile system is a milestone achievement and adds another feather in India’s defence cap.
Topic: Issues relating to intellectual property rights.
5) It is argued that India must strengthen its intellectual property rights infrastructure without giving in to US pressure to do away with the flexibility granted by WTO regulations. Examine in what context this argument is made and why it’s made. (200 Words)
IPR (Intellectual property rights) refers to the monopoly rights granted by a nation over the intellectual properties in the form of Patents, copyrights and trademarks.
India has in 2016, launched its national IPR policy to address some of the inherent weaknesses in its IPR infrastructure and to make it more compliant with the WTO norms of TRIPS (Trade related intellectual property rights). While Indian Patent Act has become more compliant with TRIPS but not with more stringent regulations of the western nations like that of US. It has resulted in constant friction between trade negotiations involving IPR issues between the two countries.
The TRIPS norms grant enough flexibility to the developing countries to design its IPR policy in a way to balance their Trade, industry and larger public interest, which India has rightly tried to do with its latest policy.
Internationally, India is facing pressure from developed countries to strengthen its patent regime, especially in negotiations of trade deals with EU and in RCEP negotiations. US chamber of commerce ranks India among the worst in IPR implementation, and US pharma companies demand India to be tagged an IPR violator. US domestically imposes higher IPR standards than those recommended by WTO and those provisioned in TRIPS(Trade related aspects of IPR) and exerts pressure on India to follow its standards. Hence, in this context, argument is being made for India not to do away with flexibility granted by WTO regulations.
American pharmaceutical companies take exception to sections 3(d) and 84 of the Indian Patents Act. The first prevents new formulations of existing medicines from being patented unless they improve therapeutic efficiency. Big pharmaceutical firms have used this method, called evergreening, to maintain market dominance and keep prices high. The second provides for compulsory licences to meet the reasonable requirements of the public. Abuse of these provisions may well disincentivize research and development spending and doing business in India, as American companies claim.
But the Indian government and courts have been judicious. In 2013, the Supreme Court denied Swiss multinational Novartis a patent for its cancer drug Glivec, citing evergreening. And in 2012, Indian company Natco Pharma was allowed to make a generic version of German company Bayer’s cancer drug Nexavar. Giving up this manoeuvring space would be a major blow to India’s generics sector—and, given its global dominance, to public health in India and elsewhere.
This has been a major hurdle in the proposed Indo-US bilateral investment treaty. The pressure the office of the US trade representative has attempted to exert on New Delhi in recent years over IPR is now likely to increase given Donald Trump’s aggressive stance on trade.
Not succumbing to US pressure –
1.WTO-compliant – India’s Patent Act is compliant with TRIPS, but not with more stringent US regulations who has kept India under ‘Priority Watch List’
2.Unethical methods used – Patent Evergreening, Data exclusivity have been blatantly used by US companies to maintain their hold on drug-sale rights
3.Right to health- SC/Govt has time and again tried to block use of such illicit means using Sec 3(d) of Patents Act, 1970
Eg – Denial of patent to Novartis for Glivec (Evergreening), and granting compulsory license to Natco Pharma for generic version of cancer drug Nexavar (larger public interest)
Strengthening of IPR environment –
1.Inherent Weakness – Low IPR infrastructure leads to mooted private R&D spending, poor investments and strong patent regime, and faster application processing needed to make MII, Start-up India successful and improve employment
2.Low patents – International patent applications filed from India (~1500) is only 5-10% of those from China, Japan, S Korea; so, creating enabling environment would lead to establishment of India as next ‘Innovation Hub’
3.Patent base – Strict IPR laws have led MNC’s to conduct R&D in home countries (developed nations), while shifting manufacturing Base elsewhere in low-wage nations.
Eg – Apple has no manufacturing Centres in US, but recognizes all patents from its US HQ
4.Technical issues – IPR does not properly address Section 3(d), 3(k) of the Patents Act, which sets standard for what is considered innovation in India (lack of clarity)
Eg- Not clarity wrt software patents, while most of start-ups now belong to this domain
5.Other issues – Less awareness regarding benefits of IPR registration, discretion at hands of regulator may lead to red-tapism, ignorance of traditional knowledge, poor infusion of CSR funds into open innovation, etc.
WAY FORWARD –
There is no denial that National interest should be paramount, which India has time and again demonstrated in global forums, trade deals etc . On domestic front, only being compliant with global standards doesn’t eliminate the need for streamlining of the patent regime. India’s economy and demography is at its tipping point, and a balanced IPR regime would help in spurring innovation in country.
With regard to India-US trade relations and IPR; boosting bilateral trade means concessions and compromises on both sides. New Delhi must be flexible where it can. But on IPR it must strengthen its infrastructure while holding firm on the flexibility TRIPS grants it.
General Studies – 4
Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world,
Class XI NCERT Political Science, Political Theory, Chapter – 2
- Freedom is not absolute, it should have some restrictions. One of the theories on the limitation of restriction applied by state was Harm principle which was presented by J.S. MILL, a British philosopher.
- Harm principle basically lays down the principle of individual freedom and its limitation. J.S MILL distinguishes human actions between self regarding actions ( which only affect him) and other regarding actions ( which affect others in the society).
- He advocates of no interference of state in self regarding action as it would withhold the individuals potential in development. As far as ‘other regarding actions’ are concerned state has the right to interfere but with caution, as freedom is at the core of human society, and is so crucial for a dignified human life, it should only be constrained in special circumstances. For minor harm, Mill recommends only social disapproval and not the force of law.The ‘harm caused’ must be ‘serious’ enough to use force of law. But we must make sure that the constraints imposed are not so severe that they destroy freedom itself.
Relevance of harm Principle in present India –
- Political aspects : by respecting equal rights of every one it can helps in promoting democracy , preserve true spirit of art-19 of constitution , also give very relevant argument in anti defection law issue of harming individual legislator freedom of vote.
- Social aspects : can help in promoting gender equality , can be base for solution for surrogacy issue, LGBT rights issue, euthanasia as well as suicide issue .
- Individual aspect : it protects individual freedom and prohibits unnecessary intervention of state or societal organization. For example- a girl should wear western cloth or not is completely her choice, Beef-ban, inter caste marriages.
- Negative relevance – it is very difficult to clearly demarcate between actions which do only self harm and not public harm.
India is the largest democracy and individual liberty is one of our ideals enshrined in the constitution. So, state should try not to interfere in this ‘minimal area of non-interference’ and rather should strive to provide an enabling environment in which its residents can blossom and grow.
Topic:Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators
Class XI NCERT Political Science, Political Theory, Chapter – 2
- Freedom is a political ideology most essential to human Freedom is absence of any external constrains over an individual. It enables him to make independent decisions and take action accordingly. Freedom allows one for full development of individual’s capacities ,sensibilities and capabilities.
- In the broader sense, itmeans exercising control over one’s life and to have the opportunity to freely express oneself. It not only means the absence of undue external constraints but also the presence of an enabling environment in which an individual can be able to realize her potential. It is because of these two dimensions that FRs(to protect citizen’s liberty) and DPSPs(to provide an enabling environment) have been incorporated in our constitution.
Gandhiji’s View –
Gandhiji viewed freedom in form of Swaraj or self rule. It contained both rule of self and rule over self. It was more than freedom and contained liberation in redeeming one’s self respect, self-responsibility and capacity for self realisation.
Mandela’s view –
Mandela viewed freedom as liberation from dehumanization and repression. He advocated for abolishment of discrimination and equal opportunities for all as mean for attaining freedom.
Netaji Bose’s view –
He defined freedom not only as abolition of political bondage but also of socioeconomic inequalities, destruction of religious intolerance and communalism. He also emphasized on freedom for an individual and equal freedom among individuals i.e. same freedom for rich & poor, men & women etc.
Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world,
8) In India the eminent socialist thinker Rammanohar Lohia, identified five kinds of inequalities that need to be fought against simultaneously. What are these inequalities? Are these still relevant today? How Lohia wanted to fight these inequalities? Examine. (200 Words)
Class XI NCERT Political Science, Political Theory, Chapter – 3
Rammanohar Lohia was an eminent socialist thinker. He put forth 5 kinds of inequalities, and argued that each of these inequalities had independent roots and had to be fought separately and simultaneously unlike other socialists of that age who focused majorly on class-based inequality.
5 types of inequalities –
1.Gender Inequality – Patriarchal mindset and gender discrimination is rooted in most societies modern or orthodox, though prevalence is more in latter.
Relevance = High GII in the poorer and developing countries, where women are majorly discriminated against, cases of female molestation .
2.Racism – Black skin color constitutes low status and ugliness, looks quite ironical considering most of the humanity in today’s world is ‘black’ (in darkness) where inner purity is substituted by outer appearances.
Relevance = the attacks on Africans in Delhi, North Eastern people in Bangalore and in general against the Bihari immigrants in Maharashtra etc. ,US police treatment to colored people, Exploitation in Europe.
Lohia warned that such discrimination would disturb global inner peace and freedom, and tried to change mindset of people and put forth real definition of beauty – based on inner conscience.
3.Caste discrimination – Lohia considered caste as ossified (stagnated) class, which turns country into arid desert of intellectual inadequacy which restricts opportunities, thus he refuted class system and tried to imbibe a sense of equality in society.
Relevance = prevalence of discrimination against Dalits and other lower castes.
4.Colonial exploitation – Lohia considered national freedom as ‘grand passion’ of man, and considered foreign rule as evil which drains the national resources for foreign profits, thus tried to promote nationalism, independence from foreign rulers
Relevance = Neo-colonialism by Western nations, WTO policies, lack of climate funding etc. show the north-south differences internationally symptomatic of colonial times.
5.Economic inequality – Lohia stressed to abolish private ownership of means of production and establish ownership of whole community, and favored development of MSME rather than big industrialization (favored Socialism over Capitalism).
Relevance = Less developed nations still grapple with high GINI coefficients indicating high economic inequality as a consequence of capitalism, Concentration of wealth in high-resource countries.
Lohia rightly pointed out that one-size fits all approach won’t work to mitigate the above disparities, but stressed on bottom-up inclusive development.
Lohia wanted to encourage septa revolutions or 7 revolutions against the five exploitations and also against the violence through satyagraha and against public encroachment in private sphere. When done according to Gandhian methodology, people will be able to live in a just, equal society.
Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world,
Class XI NCERT Political Science, Political Theory, Chapter – 4
Justice is the process of giving each person his due according to his action. It helps in protection of Fundamental Rights of individuals and in nation development according to spirit of constitution. Just society provides equal treatment and opportunity to each individual (barring special treatment to vulnerable section) along with giving requisite dignity without depending on religion, race, caste, gender etc.
Ex- Reservation done by state to protect the vulnerable section is Just in this sense, similarly concept of secularism to treat each religion equal is also justified.
AMBEDKAR’S VIEWS –
According to him , a society where the difference between the reverence on a person to that of contempt to another person is narrowed and becomes nil is qualified to be called as a Just Society .
He believed excessive admiration of a person and also looking disrespectfully at another person due to their identity arising out of caste , ethnicity, religion among others cannot be qualified as a Just society . Similarly , treating others without any prejudice and being compassionate to others is eligible to be called as a Just Society.
Ambedkar’s vision of Just society is engraved in the Constitution of India and this living document has given voice to millions of downtrodden of the Nation and it still continues to do so by taking our country to a society that guarantees Justice to all its citizens.
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